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Birth of Jesus of Nazareth
placed at 4 BCE


Common Era Begins Anno Domini (AD)
years begin to be counted


Augustus dies.   Tiberius            14


26-36 Pontius Pilate governor of Judea.
John the Baptist is executed on orders from Herod Antipas.

c. 26-29: Jesus of Nazareth travels around Judea and Galilee attracting discliples and crowds to his message of love and care for one another. Accounts of his disciples and followers, his parables and miracles, the opposition to his teaching, and his prophecies about his own fate, are collected by his disciples according to the oral tradition of the time.


Jesus of Nazareth crucified in Jerusalem

Jesus' birth is estimated at 4 BCE; If the date for the death of John the Baptist is accurate at 26 CE, the crucifixion of Jesus must have taken place at 29 CE and he must have been 33 years of age.

After the crucifiction, the Apostles begin spreading the teachings of Jesus, first in Judea and Galillee, then to the gentiles in Greece, Rome and elsewhere.

The Apostle Paul (Saul) first uses the Greek word "Hristos" (Christ) to describe Jesus as the "Messiah" (Christ means Messiah in Greek) while preaching to the gentiles in Antioch.

During the first decade after Jesus' crucifixion the church that grows in His name is split between those who follow James, brother of Jesus, and Peter, His favoprite disciple, who maintain that followers should abide by the Laws of Moses and be circumcised, and, the followers of Paul, mainly gentiles. Paul makes a passionate case at the First Apostolic Counsel for accepting gentiles into the faith but without forcing the Law of Moses to the letter upon them. Paul, arguably, is solely responsible for the fact that the teachings of Jesus, as told by Paul, reached the gentiles in Greece and Rome.

Christianity, as it becomes known after the first decades, is seeded and will flourish within Judaism until the execution of James, brother of Jesus, and then among gentiles in Antioch, Athens, Ephesus, Corinth, Rome, Byzantium and elsewhere until the Third Century and subsequently evolve into a new religion in 325 CE with the establishment of The Creed of Faith.

During the first two centuries of the Common Era Christian communities are established around the Mediterranean basin.

The first Christians celebrate family suppers in memory of Jesus' Last Supper with the disciples before his crucifiction. This practice gives birth to the traditions which will eventually evolve into the Holy Litourgy (Mass) and the sharing of wine and bread to represent the Blood and Body of Christ. A tradition which culminates in the mystery of Eucharist (Communion) during litourgy, where it is believed that the offerings of wine and bread are transformed into the Blood and Body of Christ

After the death of the Apostles Christian communities gradually develop their own separate theology, dogma and tradition, spreading the teachings of Christianity to all parts of the known world, throughout the Roman Empire. These rising variations on dogma and tradition will necessitate the First Oecumenical council which will be called by Emperor Constantine the Great, St. Constantine, in Nicea, near Constantinople, in 325 C.E. in order to proclaim one Creed of the Christian Faith.


Stephen the "deacon" is martyred; the Church scatters                36


Head of Christian Church at Byzantium (later Constantinople) named: BISHOP of BYZANTIUM

Jonathon, a son of Annas (High Priest from AD6-15), replaces Annas' son-in-law Caiaphas as High Priest in Jerusalem.

Paul makes his first visit as a Christian to Jerusalem. This follows his journey to Arabia and return to Damascus to preach (Galatians 1:17). Paul is forced to leave Jerusalem and goes to his home town of Tarsus (Acts 9:30)
  Gaius (Caligula) St. Andrew the Apostle          37



The conversion of Saul (later Paul) on the road to Damascus
    Stachys the Apostle          38


Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, and his wife Herodias, are forced into exile in Gaul (France) by Caligula. Galilee and Perea are granted to King Herod Agrippa I to add to the territories already held since AD37                39


40-65 Missions of Paul and associates, especially to Gentiles

The word Christians first used by Paul (Saul) to describe believers in Antioch

AD40-50 - According to tradition, Matthew wrote the GOSPEL OF MATTHEW, originally in Aramaic.


King Herod Agrippa I is now granted Judea and Samaria by Claudius. The line of Roman procurators temporarily comes to an end. After just four years, Agrippa I's kingdom equals that of his grandfather, Herod the Great (37-4BC).   Claudius            41


Head of Christian Church at Rome named: BISHOP OF ROME

Paul joins Barnabas to work with the established church in Syrian Antioch
1 St. Peter              42


Under Claudius, the Roman conquest of Britannia (Britain) begins                43


Herod Agrippa I, grandson of Herod the Great and son of the murdered Aristobulus is made king and granted Iturea and Trachonitis by his friend, the emperor Caligula. The territories were previously ruled by his deceased uncle, Philip. He is also granted Abilene, once ruled by Lysanias

The apostle James, brother of John and son of Zebedee, is beheaded, and Peter imprisoned on the orders of King Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12:1-3)

King Herod Agrippa I dies suddenly in Caesarea (Acts 12:23). His son, Agrippa II, is too young to rule, and all the Jewish provinces return to direct Roman control. Roman procurators are again appointed over Judea.
Of Agrippa I's daughters, Drusilla later marries Felix, a Roman procurator of Judea (Acts 24:24), and Bernice becomes a close companion of her brother Agrippa II (Acts 25:13)


AD45-50 - The LETTER OF JAMES is written, probably by James, brother of Jesus, sometime before the Council held at Jerusalem in c AD49                45


Paul's first missionary journey c AD46-48                46


47-48 Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus [Acts 13, 4-12]                47



AD48 or 49 - Paul may have written his LETTER TO THE GALATIANS around this time from Syrian Antioch, or on the way to the Council of Jerusalem; otherwise c AD56 or 57


Apostolic Council held at Jerusalem

Paul's second Missionary journey c AD49-52


All four of the gospels which were eventually selected among others to be included in the New Testament were written, by their respective author(s) beginning, in some cases, before the year 50 of the Common Era. In some schools of thought, it is believed that all four were completed by as early as 70 CE. Mainstream schools of thought suggest an end-date around 95 CE, or later into the first quarter of the second century."

Emperor Claudius expels the Jews from Rome

Herod Agrippa II is old enough to be appointed king of Chalcis by emperor Claudius


AD49-52 (range, 2 to 4 years between AD48-54) - Paul and Silas leave Syrian Antioch for the SECOND MISSIONARY JOURNEY. They travel through Asia Minor (present day Turkey), before crossing to Macedonia (northern Greece). Paul then sails south to Corinth in Achaia (southern Greece) and stays for 18 months. Here he appears before the proconsul Gallio, and writes his FIRST and SECOND LETTERS TO THE THESSALONIANS. Sailing for Palestine, he calls in at Ephesus (western Turkey), before returning to Syrian Antioch via Jerusalem                51


AD50-60 - Oral traditions about the life and ministry of Jesus continue to be committed to writing, and collections assembled                52


Paul's third Missionary journey c AD53-58

From AD53, King Herod Agrippa II, exchanges Chalcis for parts of Iturea and Trachonitis, Galilee and Perea.


Claudius, Roman emperor, is poisoned, succeeded by Nero   Nero Onesimus          54


c AD58-60 Paul's arrest in Jerusalem and imprisonment in Caesaria for trial before the procurator Felix. He is also seen by Drusilla, Felix's wife. Paul is kept in prison for two years                58


In Britannia, Boadicea, queen of the Iceni, revolts against Roman rule but is defeated and killed by the Roman governor Suetonius Paulinus

Paul's journey to Rome and continued imprisonment c AD60-63.
Paul sails for Rome, is shipwrecked on Malta where he stays for three months and meets Publius, the chief official. He continues on to Rome via Sicily.
Paul under house arrest in Rome for two years. During these years, he writes his Letters to the Colossians, to philemon, to the Ephesians, and to the Philippians


Joseph of Arimathea came to Glastonbury on the first Christian mission to Britain                63



Paul's possible release from imprisonment in Rome c AD64-67
Paul may have been released from house arrest in Rome, and travelled to Spain?, Macedonia, Achaia, Crete, and Asia Minor (Turkey)

c AD64-67 - The apostle Peter wrote the First Letter of Peter, and possibly the Second letter during this period
c AD64 - During the persecutions that follow the fire, the apostles Peter and Paul may have been martyred. According to tradition Peter was crucified head downwards, and Paul beheaded, both in Rome. Paul, however, may have been on his further travels at this time, following his earlier release from house arrest, and Peter executed later

Roman emperor Nero (37-68) accuses the Christians of having started the fire which destroyed large sections of Rome, thus initiating widespread persecution.


The Letter to Hebrews addressed to Jewish Christians may have been written about this time

c AD65-70 - The Gospel Of Mark may have been written, traditionally in Rome, around the time of Peter's execution


If Paul was released, he would have written his First Letter to Timothy and his Letter to Titus around now, perhaps from the Macedonia area

AD66-73 - Jewish war against Roman rule. The campaign in Judea is initially led by the Roman general Vespasian. Many Jews, and probably Christians leave Jerusalem


Paul is possibly re-arrested, taken to Rome, and sometime before execution, wrote his Second Letter to Timothy.

The Letter to Jude, brother of James and thus Jesus, may have been written around this time, possibly in Palestine
2 St. Linus              67


Emperor Nero commits suicide

cAD68-70 - The Book of Revelation may have been written at this time, following the persecutions of Nero, but before the Fall of Jerusalem. Otherwise Revelation was written towards the end of the 1st century.

Qumran (Essenes?) community destroyed by Rome, site of Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1949


    After Nero's suicide, Galba, Otho and Vitellius are emperors of Rome in quick succession Polycarpus I          69


Jewish revolt, Sacking of Jerusalem by the Romans: Jerusalem is captured by Titus and the Temple destroyed

Destruction of the Temple
Diaspora begins

Separation of Christianity from Judaism widens after capture of Jerusalem
  Vespasian            70


Jewish resistance ends with the fall of the fortress of Masada, last remaining stronghold of Jewish Zealots                73


75-77 The Roman conquest of Britain is complete as Wales is finally subdued; Julius Agricola is imperial governor (to 84)                75


  3 St. Anacletus              76



Mount Vesuvius catastrophic eruption.
The Roman resort towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum are burried in the ashes, preserving a snapshot of Roman life for the millenia to come.


The Gospel of Matthew may have been composed between 80 and 100 CE.                80





  4 St. Clement I              88


    L. Antonius Saturninus Plutarch          89


cAD90-100 - The First, Second and Third Letters of John are written by the apostle John from Ephesus                90


    Nerva            96


  5 St. Evaristus              97


    Trajan            98


The apostle John, according to tradition, dies a natural death at Ephesus

The Gospel of John may have been composed c. 100-125 CE.

100-150 Writings of apostolic fathers show a concern with unity and good order of churches

First London Bridge is built across the Thames by the Romans.



6 St. Alexander I   Sedecion          105


Pliny, governor of Bithynia, consults Emperor Trajan on how to deal with those accused as Christians                112


      Diogenes          114


  7 St. Sixtus I              115


117-138: Hadrian emperor of Rome, improves defenses and codifies law.   Hadrian            117


Construction of Hadrian's Wall in Britain begins, to mark the northernmost border of the empire separating the areas that are today England and Scotland.                122


  8 St. Telesphorus              125


      Eleutherius          129


Shimeon Bar-Kokhba and Rabbi Akiba Ben-Joseph lead Jews in a revolt against Roman rule. They capture Jerusalem and create an independent state of Israel.                132


Julius Severus governor of Britain is sent to Palestine to crush the revolt                133



Julius Severus, formerly governor of Britain, crushes the revolt in Palestine. Final Diaspora (dispersion) of the Jews occurs.


The bishop of Rome, Hyginus, assumes the title of "pope" 9 St. Hyginus   Felix          136


    Antoninus Pius            138


Justin founds school of Christian philosophy at Rome

Shepherd of Hermas is written, presenting a highly developed system of bishops, deacons, and priests.
10 St. Pius I              140


      Polycarpus II          141


      Athendodorus          144


      Euzois          148


Four "canonical" gospels are collected together.

School of Alexandria is founded in Egypt, quickly becoming a major center for both Christian theology and Greek philosophy. Among its prominent teachers are the theologians Clement (died c. 215) and Origen (c. 185 - 254).


      Laurence          154


  11 St. Anicetus              155



  Marcus Aurelius             161


Justin's martyrdom                165


Roman Emporer Marcus Aurelius sends gifts to Chinese Emperor Huan Ti.     Alypius          166


At the request of King Lucius the missionaries Phagan and Deruvian were said to have been sent by Pope Eleutherius to convert the Britons to Christianity. This is perhaps the most widely believed of the legends of the founding of Christianity in Britain.                167


  12 St. Soterus              168


      Pertinax          169


Celsus writes True Word, the first book opposing Christianity                170


  13 St. Eleutherius Avidius Cassius            175


180-200 Irenaeus of Lyons preaches to Celts in Gaul, refuting gnosticism

Clement heads school of "true gnosticism" in Alexandria

Irenaeus (125 - c. 202), Catholic theologian, writes Against Heresies in an attempt to fight the spread of Gnosticism. He claimed that "every church must agree" with the church of Rome because of its apostolic authority.

First African Christians are martyred at Scillium.
  Commodus            180


Lucius Artorius Castus commander of a detachment of Sarmatian conscripts stationed in Britain led his troops to Gaul to quell a rebellion. This is the first appearance of the name Artorius in history and some believe that this Roman military man is the original or basis for the Arthurian legend. The theory says that Castus' exploits in Gaul at the head of a contingent of mounted troops are the basis for later similar traditions about "King Arthur and, further, that the name Artorius" became a title or honorific which was ascribed to a famous warrior in the fifth century.                184



    Olympians          187


  14 St. Victor I              189


Christian council determine "official" date of Easter.                190


    Pertinax            192


    Didius Julianus            193


Tertullian begins writing apologetics in Carthage, Afica

First recorded usage of the term "catholic" appears in the writings of Apollonius; used in reference to 1 John. The word ³catholic² in Greek means ³all encompassing² (uniqueness, no variation).


      Mark I          198


  5 St. Zephirinus              199


First mention of Christians in Britain

New Testament canon is mostly fixed in currently known form.


Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas in Carthage                203



Severus goes to defend Britain and repairs Hadrian's Wall


St. Alban first British martyr was killed for his faith in one of the few persecutions of Christians ever to take place on the island during the governorship of Gaius Junius Faustinus Postumianus                209


    Antoninus (Caracalla) Philadelphus          211


Origen begins traveling, commending Christianity to high ranking officials throughout the empire                212


Hippolytus of Rome compiles the Apostolic Tradition, describing how converts are to be discipled                215


  16 St. Calixtus I Macrinus Ciriacus I          217


    Diadumenianus            218


Goths invade Asia Minor                220


  [Hippolytus]              221


  17 St. Urban I Severus Alexander             222



  L. Seius Sallustius            225


Pope Urban I justifies the ownership of property by the Church, the elevation of bishops and the excommunication of heretics 18 St. Pontianus   Castinus          230


Origen founds school at Caesarea (Palestine)                231


  19 St. Anterius Maximinus Thrax            235


  20 St. Fabianus              236


      Eugenius I          237


    Gordian I             238


Gregory "the Wonder Worker" appointed bishop of Pontus (in north Asia Minor)   Sabinianus            240


      Titus          242


    Philip the Arab            244



Paul of Thebes retreats to the Egyptian desert and becomes the first Christian hermit


    Philip Iunior            247


Cyprian appointed bishop of Carthage, the largest church in Africa, only two years after his conversion

Origen defends Christianity in Against Celsus
  Pacatianus            248


    Decius             249


250-300: Increasing invasions of Rome by the Franks and the Goths

Emperor Decius begins the first, though short-lived, general persecution of Christians


  21 St. Cornelius              251


  [Novatianus]              252


  22 St. Lucius I              253


  23 St. Stephen I              254


Gaul overrun by the Germans from the Rhine                256



24 St. Sixtus II              257


  25 St. Dionysius              259


260-305 Porphyry, a Neoplatonist philosopher, writes multivolume Against the Christians                260


A council excommunicates Paul of Samosata                264


Goths sack Athens, Corinth, and Sparta.

Lucianus of Antioch (born in Samosata) preaches that Jesus was only a man
  Claudius II Gothicus             268


  26 St. Felix I Laelianus            269


Monasticism begins to spread in Egypt and Syria, promoting Christianity in rural areas

Anthony becomes a hermit in Egypt
  Quintillus            270


    Domitianus            271


    Vaballathus Dometius          272


    Firmus            273



  Faustinus            274


  27 St. Eutychianus Tacitus            275


Mani is crucified by the Sassanids for tring to incorporate Judaism Christianity and Zoroastrianism into one religion ("manicheism")   Florianus             276


    Bonosus            280


    Saturninus            281


    Carus            282


  28 St. Caius Numerianus            283


    Diocletian Rufinus I          284


Papa is ordained first bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon (the first "catholico   Maximianus Herculius            285


Emperor Diocletian divides the empire - he rules the east and Maximilian rules the west.

Diocletian instigates the Tetrarchy, Consisting of one Augustus and one Ceasar in each of the two partitions. The empire will be ruled by the two sets of rulers (one higher placed tha his second in command) for only twelve years before the seconds in command attack their superiors and then each other. This is the path followed by Constantine, starting as Ceasar in York, south through Gaul, across the Milvian Bridge and into Rome in 312 C.E.



  Allectus Probus          293


  29 St. Marcellinus              296


    L. Domitius Domitianus             297


Armenia becomes the first country to make Christianity its state religion.

the Armenian king Tiridates I converted by Gregory the Illuminator


Diocletian implements a Great Persecution of the Christians

emperor Diocletian orders a general persecution of the Christians


  Vacant,              304


    Maximinus Daia            305


Constantine proclaimed Emperor at York , Western Empire

The first bishop of Nisibis is ordained

Constantine I 
Metrophanes          306


Constantine takes Gaul 30 St. Marcellus I L. Domitius Alexander            308


  31 St. Eusebius              309



Donatus and others rebel against the appointment of the bishop of Carthage claiming independence of Church and state and claiming that the people could determine how worthy of administering sacraments a priest is
32 St. Melchiades              311


312-337: Constantine the Great reunites Roman Empire with new capital at Byzantion called Constantinople

Roman emperor Constantine converts to Christianity


Edict of Milan:
After a victorius entry in Rome, following the battle of Milvian Bridge where Constantine defeated and killed Maxentius, Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan, legalizing Christianity in the Roman Empire.

Constantine ends the persecution of the Christians.

A cathedral is built in Edessa


Head of Church at Rome named:

Gregory the Illuminator founds Armenian church

Donatism is condemned as a heresy
33 St. Sylvester I Valens Alexander          314


Eusebius, the first church historian and later eulogist of Constantine, appointed bishop of Caesarea                315


Donatism splits from Catholicism and spreads throughout Africa                316


Pachomius a disciple of Anthony organizes a community of ascetics at Tabennis in Egypt (birth of Christian monasticism)                318


Arius is expelled by the patriarch Alexander and during his travels through the eastern Roman empire converts more bishops                320


Constantine builds a church to the apostle Peter on the Roman cemetery where the martyr is buried                323


Head of Church at Constantinople named:

Constantine I achieves full control of Roman Empire.
Constantine finally achieves full control over an undivided empire. He was a skillful politician who is popularly believed to have made Christianity the official religion of the empire because of his personal convictions. In actuality that act was merely an expedient intended to harness the power of its "God" for the benefit of the state. He re-located the imperial headquarters to Byzantium whose name he then changed to Constantinople. Despite his outward enthusiasm for Christianity and its powerful God he didn't close many pagan temples during his reign. He did however strip them of their former wealth which was then shifted to various Christian churches. This produced the result that many of the fledgling churches were put on a very firm financial footing and many of their members enjoyed great prosperity. The persecution of Christianity had stopped perhaps but its co-opting had just begun. Early Christianity had no official hierarchies and functioned best as a series of small church groups worshipping with and caring for their own members while spreading Christ's Gospel in their local areas. Constantine's move created a top-heavy structure that would quickly depart from its original purity; a church beholden to the state out of touch with the needs of its adherents and concerned only with its own comfort. Eusebius the early Christian historian has given us some additional insights into the motivations of the Emperor Constantine in his "Ecclesiastical History".
      Constantine I         324



Constantine calls the First Ecumenical Council at Nicea to condemn the Arian heresy, which had taught that the Son was inferior to the Father.

The Nicene Creed, the Creed of Christian faith is established and will remain intact until the Schism of 1054.

Council of Nicaea discusses the divine/human nature of Jesus and approves the Christian canon (the New Testament) against "heretic" books


I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages. Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten, not created, of one essence with the Father, through whom all things were made. For us and for our salvation, He came down from heaven and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and became man. He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and He suffered and was buried.

On the third day He rose according to the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father.

He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead. His kingdom will have no end.

And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father, who together with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified, who spoke through the prophets.

In one, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. I expect the resurrection of the dead. And the life of the age to come. Amen.



Eastern Roman Empire

Constantine dedicates the city of Byzantium as the eastern capital of the Empire or "New Rome," renaming it Constantinople after himself.

Byzantine Empire; Romiosine 330-1453

Nino converts Georgian royal family

Amoun and Macarius found monasteries in the Egyptian desert

Hilarion organizes a monastery at Gaza in Palestine

Mar Augin founds a monastery in Syria near Nisibis


the first bishop is ordained for Merv in Transoxania                334


Arius, priest at Alexandria and founder of Arianism, dies. Arianism was one of the most widespread and divisive heresies in the history of Christianity. 34 St. Marcus I              336


Constantine received "Christian" baptism on his deathbed. Joint rule of Constantine's three sons: Constantine II (to 340); Constans (to 350); Constantius (to 361) 35 St. Julius I   Paul I Constantine II        337


Athanasius of Alexandria visits Rome accompanied by the two Egyptian monks Ammon and Isidore disciples of Anthony who export the idea of monasticism     Eusebius          339


Roman legislation begins to favor Christianity and penalize paganism

Christianization and literalization of the Goths (Ulfila and the "Gothic bible

The first monastery of Persia is founded by Aphrahat near Mosul


        Macedonius I        342


catholics are massacred in Persia                344


Pachomius dies and his institution already counts eight monasteries and hundreds of monks organized in a hierarchy                345



    Paul I          346


Christianity first reaches Ethiopia.
Frumentius converts the royalty of Axum, Ethiopia.

the missionary Ninian establishes the church Candida Casa at Whithorn in Galloway Scotland
  Magnentius            350


Emperor Julian attempts to reintroduce paganism in the place of Christianity.                351


  36 Liberius              352


    Silvanus            355


  [Felix II]              356


Basil founds the monastery of Annesos in Pontus the model for eastern monasticism (perfect Christian life and constant penance meditation + poverty + humility)                358


Huns invade Europe

Martin future bishop of Tours founds the first French monastery at Liguge

the Vandals convert to christianity
    Eudoxius of Antioch          360


    Julian            361


Marius Victorinus, one of Rome's most famous rhetors, converts, causing much public excitement                362



Persia recaptures Nisibis from the Romans and the school of Nisibis moves to Edessa
  Jovian            363


    Valentinian I             364


    Procopius            365


  37 St. Damasus I Marcellus            366


Festal Epistle of St. Athanasius (c. 293 - 373) offers earliest known list of the New Testament canon in its current form.   Gratian            367


Roman general Theodosius drives the Picts and Scots out of Roman Britain                369


      Demophilus          370


The Hunns cross the river Volga into Europe having left Mongolia in the 2nd century leadin a nomadic life in their trek west. They are defeated in the battle of the field of Nations and depart Europe returning East beyond the Ural Mountains.

Martin, evangelist to the pagans of central Gaul, is elected bishop of Tours

Martin of Tours converts pagans


Buddhism introduced into Korea.   Firmus            372


Ambrose is elected bishop of Milan which has become the main Christian center in Italy                374



the Jerusalem Talmud (manual of lifestyle) is compiled by western Jews
  Valentinian II            375


Huns conquer Russia

Visigoths convert to Arian christianity


        Theodosius I
The Great


the Roman empire bans Arianism     [Evagrius]          379


Emperor Theodosius makes orthodox Christianity the official religion of the empire

Ulphilas, Arian missionary bishop among Goths and translator of Gothic Bible, dies

Theodosius I proclaims Christianity as the sole religion of the Roman Empire

Ambrose preaches virginity
    [Maximus]          380


Council II, Constantinople I,
Arianism condemned;
regarded as definitively establishing Roman Catholic orthodoxy

Head of Church at Constantinople named:

Second Ecumenical Council convoked by Theodosius I in Constantinople
    Nectarius          381


Magnus Maximus (Macsen Wledig a Spaniard was proclaimed Emperor in Britain by the island's Roman garrison. With an army of British volunteers he quickly conquered Gaul Spain and Italy. [Ursinus] Magnus Maximus            383


  38 St. Siricius Flavius Victor            384


Jerome founds monasteries in Bethlehem                386


Maximus occupied Rome itself. Theodosius the eastern Emperor defeated him in battle and beheaded him in July 388 with many of the remnant of Maximus' troops settling in Armorica. The net result to Britain was the loss of many valuable troops needed for the island's defense (the "first migration").                388



392-395:Theodosius the Great, last united Roman emperor
  Eugenius            392


    Honorius            393


      Arcadius        395


the eight council (at Carthage) defines the Christian canon (the "New Testament") as comprised of four official gospels (all others are declared heretic) and the letters of the apostles                397


Maximus of Turin preaches against pagans     John I          398


  9 St. Anastasius I              399


Jerome (Eusebius Hieronymus) translates the Bible into Latin (the "Vulgate                400


Innocent I becomes Pope (until 417) and claims universal jurisdiction over the Roman Church. 40 St. Innocent I              401


      Arsacius          404


c. 405 St. Jerome (c. 347 - 419) completes the Vulgate - a Latin translation of both the Old and New Testaments. This remains the Latin Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.                405



  Marcus Atticus          406


    Gratian            407


        Theodosius II        408


    Constans II            409


The Goths led by Alarik sack Rome

At the council of Seleucia the Persian church declares its independence from Antioch and Rome

The ascetic monk Maron sounds the Christian Maronite religion in Syria


Thanks to Augustine Donatism begins to decline   Jovinus            411


    Sebastianus            412


    Priscus Attalus            414


Roman emperor Theodosius II expels the Jews from Alexandria                415


  41 St. Zosimus              417



British monk Pelagius (c. 354 - 420) is excommunicated. Pelagius denied original sin and the need for baptism, asserting that if God asked men to do good, then they must be capable of doing good on their own. He was condemned by Augustine.
42 St. Boniface I              418


  [Eulatius] Constantius III            421


  43 St. Celestine I              422


    Johannes            423


At the synod of Dadyeshu the "catholico" of the Eastern Church proclaims himself as a patriarch on equal footing with Antioch and Rome                424


The first bishops are ordained for Herat and Samarkand   Valentinian III            425


      Sisinius I          426


Nestorius a monk in the Syrian monastery of Euprepius is appointed by the eastern Roman emperor Theodosius II as patriarch of Constantinople and preaches the doctrine of two natures of Jesus     Nestorius          428


Council III, Ephesus,
The Third Ecumenical Council at Ephesus condemns the Nestorian heresy and approves the veneration of the Virgin Mary as Theotokos (God-Bearer or Mother of God). The Nestorians go into exile in the Persian Empire and become the Assyrian Orthodox Church of the East.

Palladius is sent by the Pope as first bishop of Ireland

the third Ecumenical Council convened in Ephesus declares that there is only one nature in Jesus (divine condemns Nestorius (who is then banned by Theodosius II) and affirms that Mary was the "mother of God"
    Maximianus          431


The Roman missionary Patrick is taken prisoner to Ireland 44St. Sixtus III              432



Attila becomes ruler of the Huns (until 453). He attacks Roman provinces


      Proclus          434


The hermit Symeon the Stylite lives on top of a column (monastery of Telanissos in Syria 45 St. Leo I              440


The emperor Valentinian III decrees that all western bishops must obey the pope                445


      Flavian          446


      Anatolius          449


Angles, Saxons and Jutes begin conquest of Britain after Romans leave

the first British monasteries are established in Wales

Theodosius II dies and Marcian succeeds him the first Roman emperor to be crowned by a religious leader (the patriarch of Constantinople)
      Marcian (m. Pulcheria, gnddghtr Theod I)        450


Council IV, Chalcedon,
The Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon condemns the Monophysite heresy and affirms that Christ had both a divine and a human nature. The Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopian, and Syrian Orthodox Churches would remain Monophysite; the Greek Orthodox church and the Western church adopted the Chalcedonian or Dyophysite position. Fatal disaffection of Syria & Egypt. This Council also gives Constantinople equal standing with "Old" Rome.

Attila invades Gaul but is repulsed by joint forces of Franks, Alemanni and Romans at battle of Chalons. Invades Italy the next year.

the fourth Ecumenical Council convened in Chalcedon condemns Dioscurus of Alexandria for monophysitism (Jesus is of one nature only divine) and affirms that Jesus was one person of two natures (both human and divine) which causes the schism of the Coptic Orthodox church from the Churches of Rome and Constantinople


Vandals destroy Rome   Petronius Maximus            455


The eastern Roman emperor is crowned by the patriarch of Constantinople instead of the Pope   Majorian   Dynasty of Leo         457



458-751: Merovingian Dynasty rules in France
    Gennadius I          458


Persian king Firuz persecutes Jews who emigrate to Arabia                460


  46 St. Hilarus (Hilary) Libius Severus            461


    Anthemius            467


  47 St. Simplicius Arvandus            468


    Romanus            470


      Acacius          471


    Olybrius            472


    Glycerius            473


    Julius Nepos   Leo II        474



  Romulus Augustulus            475


End of the Western Roman Empire

Odoacer, German cheiftan, ends Western Roman Empire when he overthrows the last emperor, Romulus Augustulus and becomes King of Italy


Emperor Zeno shuts down the Nestorian school of Edessa causing Nestorian scholars to flee to Persia (Nisibis)                481


  48 St. Felix III              483


The Synod of Beth Papat in Persia declares the Nestorian docrine (two natures of Jesus) as the official theology of the East Syrian Church centered in Edessa                484


      Phrabitas          488


      Euphemius          489


Vandals take part of Spain and make Toledo their capital

Brigid founds the monastery of Kildare in Ireland


        Anastasius        491


  49 St. Gelasius I              492



Theodoric the Great establishes Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy


      Macedonus II          495


Clovis, ruler of the Franks, converts to Christianity

Clovis converts Franks to catholicism
50 St. Anastasius II              496


  51 St. Symmachus


The Babylonian Talmud is compiled for eastern Jews a much more orthodox manual of lifestyle than the western Talmud                499


The legend of Arthur, King of the Britons and his knights of the Round table is usually assumed to refer to a time between the 6th and 8th centuries. Although no evidence has ever been found of Camelot, the round table or of the existence of Arthur himself, his legend may be a composite of several personages from the eras preceding the establishment of the first kings and the House of Wessex.

Pseudo-Dionysius writes mystical works

c.500-50 - Spread of Celtic monasticism throughout Europe


      Timothy          511


  52 St. Hormisdas              514


      John II Justin        518


      Epiphanius          520



53 St. John I              523


  54 St. Felix IV              526


Reign of Justinian I begins
he will conquer North Africa, southern Spain and Italy

Arguably the most important of Byzantine Emperors and the one who marked the final transition from the latin past and paganism to a purely Christian, Greek Empire.

Justinian began his life in Bulgaria, a former Roman province, as a poor shepherd boy. His uncle Justin was the commander of the Imperial Guard in Constantinople. Justinian went on the long journey to the Capital. Shortly after he achieved the best education, the emperor died, and the people chose Justin to succeed himas Justinus I.

Justin was advised that he should work with Justinian as co-emperor. When Justin died, Justinian became the sole ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire. Justinian began making harsh rules against the pagans and their religion, and forced people to accept Christianity. It can be seen as the first forceful action of Christianity. He destroyed synagogues and Jewish temples all over his empire.

Justinian built vast structures of Byzantine, not Roman, art. He is seen as one of the founders of the "Byzantine Empire", as opposed to the East Roman Empire. His reign was filled with military success through his two great generals, Belisarius and Narsus. At the end of his reign, he controlled a part of Spain, Africa, Italy, Turkey and much of the east.

Justinian created the Justinian code, which replaced the old Roman laws and set the foundation for subsequent western legal systems.

Byzantium enforces anti-Jewish laws and the Jews all but disappear from the eastern Roman Empire
      Justinian I        527


Emperor Justinian I issues the Code of Laws

Justinian closes the pagan Philosophical Academy in Athens.

Benedetto of Nursia founds the monastery of Monte Cassino and codifies western monasticism (absolute power of the abbot

The council of Orange condemns the Pelagian heresy and accepts Augustine's doctrine of salvation.


The Benedictine monk Cassiodorus encourages monks to copy manuscripts of the classics 55 Boniface II              530


532-537: Aghia Sofia, the new cathedral of Constantinople, is built by order of Justinian, on the site of the earlier Church of Aghia Sofia which was consumed by fire.

Legend has it that a beekeeper noticed that bees in one of the beehives had fashioned what appeared to be the model of a magnificent church out of wax. He took the miraculous find to the palace and presented it to Empress Theodora who then prompted her husband to commission the building of the most magnificent Church in Christiandom.


Mercurius is elected pope and takes the name of John II the first pope to change name upon election 56 John II              533


The Roman empire destroys the Arian kingdom of the Vandals                534


  57 St. Agapetus I   Anthimus I          535


  58 St. Sylverius   Menas          536



The church of Aghia Sofia (Holy Wisdom) commissioned in Constantinople by Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora is completed by architects Isidoros and Anthemios

59 Vigilius              537


Jacob Bardaeus bishop of Edessa organizes the Monophysite Church in western Syria (the "Jacobites")                541


Ciaran founds the monastery of Clonmacnoise in Ireland                544


Columbanus founds the monastery of Derry in Ireland                546


      Eutychius          552


Council V, Constantinople II,
Monophysitism condemned again. The Ecumenical Council condemns the heresy of the Three Chapters


Columbanus founds the monastery of Durrow in Ireland 60 Pelagius I              556


  61 John III              561


Columbanus founds the monastery of Iona off the coast of Scotland soon to become the main center of the Columban school                563


      John III Justin II        565



Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, born
during the reign of Khusro Anosharwan. His father was of the Quraysh tribe (the name means ' shark ' and may have been derived from an ancient tribal emblem.) This tribe gained much power and influence, both because of their commercial activity in their hub at the city of Mecca, and because of their importation and custody of important idols at Mecca.


Gregory is appointed bishop of Tours                573


  62 Benedict I              575


        Tiberius II (I) Constantine        578


  63 Pelagius II              579


Monte Cassino is sacked by the Lombards and the monks flee to Rome                580


      John IVBR>Nesteutes, the Faster Maurice        582


The Visigothic king Recared converts to catholicism                587


The Visigoths abandon Aryanism and convert to catholicism                588


For the first time a monk is elected Pope Gregory I 64 St. Gregory I              590



    Cyriacus          596


The Roman brand of Christianity is brought to Britain for the first time by St. Augustine the missionary sent with forty monks by Pope Gregory to convert the Saxons. Augustine founded a monastery and the first church at Canterbury and was proclaimed its first Archbishop.                597


Pope Gregory I promulgates the doctrine of salvation through confession and penance                600


Augustine converts king Ethelbert of Kent and establishes the see of Canterbury with himself as its first archbishop                601


        Phocas        602


The Lombards convert to Christianity and move their capital to Pavia                603


Gregory I dies 65 Sabinianus              604


  66 Boniface III   Thomas I          607


  67 St. Boniface IV              608


The Irish monk Colombanus founds the monastery at Bobbio                609



Muhammad and his followers go to Mecca, where they are not accepted
    Sergius I Heraclius        610


The Visigothic king Sisebut forces the Jews of Spain to release all slaves and convert to Christianity                612


Clotaire II and Dagobert I unify France after years of continual disunity                613


Colombanus dies in Italy 68 St. Deusdedit              615


  69 Boniface V              619


The Visigoths in Spain persecute the Jews                620


Muhammad and his followers flee Mecca to Medina. The year of that flight, or Hijrah, became the first year of the Islamic calendar, and the beginning the Muslim era.                622


  70 Honorius I              625


Pope Gregory I sends Paulinus to found the see of York and convert king Edwin of Northumbria                627


Muhammad in Mecca pronounced the perfection of the new religion.

Muhammad dies
Muhammed flees Mecca, beginning the Muslim era.              632



Muslim (Arab) Empire grows


Cynegils king of Wessex converts to christianity                635


Arabs capture Jerusalem                636


Arabs conquer Jerusalem                637


Omar defeats the Byzantine army

the Arabs allow the Jews to return to Jerusalem
Vacant   Pyrrhus          638


The Arabs conquer Syria (mainly Nestorian) from Byzantium                639


  71 Severinus              640


Muslims conquer Persia     Paul II Heraclonas        641


the Arabs conquer Egypt (mainly monophysite) from Byzantium 73 Theodore I              642


Amadeus bishop of Maastricht carries out missionary work in Frisia (Holland) and among the Slavs                647



74 St. Martin I
Arrested and died in exile in Crimea


Arianism disappears after the Lombards convert to catholicism                650


  75 St. Eugenius I   Peter          654


King Oswy of Northumberland founds the Benedictine monastery of Whitby in Yorkshire 76 St. Vitalianus              657


Constans II is the last eastern Roman emperor to set foot in Rome                663


Iona monk Wilfrid is appointed bishop of York                664


      Thomas II          667


The monk Theodore of Tarsus is appointed as archbishop of Canterbury       Constantine IV        668


      John V          669


Arabs attack N. Africa

Whitby monk Caedmon translates the gothic Bible into Germanic vernacular (ancient english



77 Adeodatus              672


Benedict Biscop founds the monastery of Wearmouth in Northumbria                674


      Constantine I          675


  78 Domnus (I)              676


      Theodore I          677


Wilfrid evangelizes in Frisia (Holland 79 St. Agathon              678


      George I          679


680-681 Council VI,Constantinople III,
Monotheletism condemned


Benedict founds the monastery of Jarrow in Northumbria                681


  80 St. Leo II              682



81 St. Benedict II              684


John V is the first of a series of Greek and Syriac Popes under the influence of Constantinople 82 John V     Justinian II (banished)         685


  83 Conon              686


The Danes destroy the monastery of Whitbey 84 St. Sergius I
Ordered arrested but Italian garrison refuses




English missionary Willibrord evangelizes in Holland and Denmark                690


      Callinicus I          693


The Visigothic king Egica orders all Jews enslaved                694


        Leontius        695


Arabs capture Carthage       Tiberius III(II)        698


Babylonian Jews extend their influence as the Arab conquest spreads west                700



85 John VI              701


  86 John VII   Cyrus Justinian II (restored)        705


  87 Sisinnius

88 Constantine I
Last Pope to visit Constantinople


Tariq ibn-Ziyad and a Berber army cross the Strait of Gibraltar into Iberia (Spain)

The Arabs conquer southern Spain from the Visigoths (with help from the Jews)
      Bardanes        711


      John VI          712


        Anastasius II        713


  89 St. Gregory II   Germanus I          715


Arab empire extends from Lisbon, Spain to China

Iona conforms to Roman usage
      Theodosius III        716


        Leo III        717


Arabs complete their conquest in Spain                719



the Anglosaxon Benedectine monk Boniface (Wynfrid) evangelizes in Saxony


During the iconoclasm Constantinople orders all images to be destroyed                726


Byzantine Emperor Leo III bans the veneration of images and relics, inaugurating the first period of Iconoclasm.     Anastasius          730


Bede writes the "Ecclesiastical History of the English People 90 St. Gregory III

Appeals to Franks for help against Lombards


Charles Martel halts Arabian advance in France

The Muslim invasion of Europe is stopped by the Franks at the battle of Tours


Boniface reforms the Frankish church                739


  91 St. Zachary     Constantine V Copronymus         741


Boniface founds the monastery of Fulda in Germany                744


Pepin the Short, Martel's son, becomes King of the Franks

Pepin sends help to the Pope in Italy

The Lombards under king Aistulf conquer Ravenna from the Byzantines and indirectly release Rome from the influence of Constantinople


Stephen II is Pope for only one day 92 Stephen II

93 Stephen III



Donation of Pepin,
Byzantine Exarchate of Ravennabecomes Papal States

Although the Pope had been the de facto governor of Rome for a few years, the Donation of Pepin in 754 begins the formal history of the Papacy as a territorial power. This would last until 1870, giving the Papal States a run of 1116 years. The origin terms of the grant were for the "Exarchate of Ravenna," i.e. the Roman Imperial territory that was preserved across central Italy after the invasion of Lombards in 568. The most important parts of this were, of course, Rome itself and the area of Romagna around Ravenna in the north, with a narrow salient connecting them.

Boniface is killed by Frisians

pope Stephen II anoints Pepin III king of the Franks
    Constantine II          754


The Caliphrate of Cordoba is founded by Abd-ar-Rahma in Spain

Pepin again fights for the Pope in Italy, Papal States formed

Pepin III defeats the Lombards and conquers Ravenna but leaves the conquered territories to the Pope thereby founding the Papal State and establishing a temporal power for the Pope


  94 St. Paul I              757


      Nicetas I          766


  [Constantine II]



The Frankish kindom is divided among Pepin's sons: Carloman and Charlemagne (Charles 95 Stephen IV              768


At the Lateran council the cardinals decide that only cardinals can become popes                769


771-814: Charlemagne rules in France, conquers Lombards, part of Spain, Bavarians, Avars, and the Saxons



  96 Adrian I              772


The Eastern patriarchate moves from Seleucia-Ctesiphon to Baghdad       Leo IV        775



    Paul IV, Constantine VI        780


Charlemagne summons the monk and scholar Alcuin of York to head the palace school at Aachen: revival of learning in Europe                782


      Tarasius          784


The Seventh Ecumenical Council, Nicea II, condemns iconoclasm and restores the veneration of images underguidance of Empress Irene.                787


Vikings begin to attack the British Isles                790


Vikings invade Britain for the first time in a surprise attack on the monastic community at Lindisfarne (Holy Island)                793


  97 St. Leo III              795


        Irene        797


St. Leo III crowns Charlemagne Roman Emperor;
gives Papacy basis for claiming sovereign rights over later Holy Roman Emperors

Pope Leo III crowns Charles emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and therefore introduces theocratic monarchy in Europe


        Nicephorus I House of Wessex



    Nicephorus I          806


        Strauracius        811


Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pious, is crowned by his father       Leo V        813


Charlemagne dies, succeeded by his son Louis the Pious           Later Carolingian Transition
Louis I
(not a king of 'France')


A council called by Emperor Leo V again bans images, inaugurating the second period of Iconoclasm.     Theodotus I,          815


  98 Stephen V              816


Louis the Pious decides to divide his empire between his sons Lothair (emperor) and his other two sons as kings of two other subordinate kingdoms

Benedict of Ariane draws up the monastic constitution of Benedectine monasteries (monks as a political entity that mediates between laity and deity
99 St. Paschal I              817


        Phrygian Dynasty         820


      Anthony I          821


Mojmir prince of Morava converts to christianity                822



100 Eugenius II              824


826-27: Arabs conquer Crete, Sicily and Sardinia

the Frankish missionary Angkar bishop of Hamburg evangelizes in Denmark and Sweden

Harald Klak of Denmark converts to Christianity


  101 Valentinus

102 Gregory IV


Egbert of Wessex is recognized as overlord of other English kings                828


        Theophilus        829


The Kirghiz drive the Uighurs west to the Tarim Basin                830


      John VII          836


          Aethelwulf      839


            Charles II
(the Bald)


        Michael III        842



Empress Theodora restores the veneration of images on the First Sunday of Lent, which became known as the Sunday of Orthodoxy.
End of the Iconoclastic struggle
Triumph of Orthodoxy

the "Restoration of the images" in Constantinople solves the iconoclastic controversy
    Methodius I          843


Kenneth MacAlpine King of the Scots conquers the Picts; founds a unified Scotland 103 Sergius II              844


the Irish theologian Johannes Scotus Erigena (John the Scot) takes over the Palatine Academy in France                845


  104 St. Leo IV   Ignatius          847


caliph al-Mutawakkil deposes the patriarch of the Eastern Christian Church and persecutes Christians                849


Ansgar founds the churches at Hedeby and Ribe in Denmark                852


855-79: Russian nation founded by the Vikings under Prince Rurik 105 Benedict III

      Aethelbald      855


Emperor Michael III deposes Patriarch Ignatius and installs Photius, a learned layman.

Nicholas I becomes pope and asserts the independence of the Church from local authorities and from Constantinople
106 St. Nicholas I   Photius          858


Vikings repulsed in the Mediterranean                859


          Aethelbert      860



Vikings discover Iceland

the Khazars convert to Judaism


Byzantine Emperor Michael III ("the Drunkard") sends Constantine (later Cyril, died 869) and his brother Methodius (died 885) to Moravia to teach Christianity to the Slavs. They translated the Bible and other religious writings into Old Church Slavonic. These "Apostles to the Slavs" also had the support of the Popes of Rome, Hadrian II and John VIII.

Boris of Bulgary converts to christianity

Ratislav of Moravia converts to christianity


Cyril and Methodius from Constantinople write the Slavic bible in the first Slavic alphabet glagolitic                863


          Aethelred      866


Rivalry between Greek and Latin missionaries to Bulgaria prompts Photius to convene a council that deposes Pope Nicholas III, and attacks Western notions of papal primacy and many Western practices, including the insertion of the word "filioque" into the Nicene Creed. The Eastern church now dates the East-West split from this event (the Photian Schism).
Also see 1054 CE
107 Adrian II     Basil I         867


869-870 Council VIII,Constantinople IV,
patched up filioque and other differences, later repudiated by East, last Oecumenical Council recognized by West which included Eastern Church

Emperor Basil I "the Macedonian," who had murdered Michael III, seeks papal support by deposing Photius and restoring Ignatius. The Eighth Council held in support of Ignatius is considered by the West only to be the Eighth Ecumenical Council (Constantinople IV).


The Serbs convert to christianity                870


Alfred the Great becomes King of a united England         Alfred the Great      871


  108 John VIII              872


877-80: Ignatius dies, Photius restored as Patriarch, legates of Pope John VIII accept him on condition that Bulgaria be returned to the Latin church, without really settling the theological issues.           Louis II
(the Stammerer)



Alfred defeats Danish invaders


            Louis III
(joint with Louis III above, until 882)


  109 Martin II              882


  110 St. Adrian III         Charles the Fat    884


Mt Athos is granted independence as a religious retreat by emperor Basil I 111 Stephen VI              885


Alfred captures London from the Danes     Stephanus I          886


        Leo VI        887


French crown offered to Count Odo           Eudes
(also Odo)
of Paris


  112 Fromosus              891


      Anthony II          893



113 Boniface VI              896


  115 Romanus
116 Theodore II


  117 John IX         Charles III
(the Simple)


          Edward the Elder      899


  118 Benedict IV              900


      Nicholas I          901


  19 Leo V
120 Christopher


Sergius III is elected pope thanks to a powerful Roman noblewoman the first of a series of popes appointed by the Roman aristocracy 212 Sergius III              904


      Euthymius I          907


Berno founds the monastery of Cluny in Burgundy                909



Vikings under Rollo found settlement in Normandy, a vassal state of France
122 Anastasius III              911


912-61: Arabian Spain becomes the centre of learning

the Normans become Christian
      Alexander         912


  123 Lando     Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus         913


  134 John X              914


The Viking ruler Dirk I founds the Egmont Benedictine monastery in Haarlem (Holland           Robert I


(also Rudolf, non-Carolingian)


      Stephanus II   Athelstan      925


      Tryphon          927


  125 Leo VI
126 Stephen VIII


  127 John XI              931



Castile becomes independent of Leon


      Theophylactus          933


  128 Leo VII         Louis IV
(d'Outremer or The Foreigner)


  129 Stephen IX              939


          Edmund the Magnificent      940


  130 Martin III              942


  131 Agapetus II       Eadred      946


The leader of the Magyars converts to christianity                948


The church of Hosios Loukas (Holy Luke) is founded in Stiris Greece                950


(also Lothaire)



132 John XII       Eadwig (Edwy) All-Fair      955


      Polyeuctus          956


        Romanus II Edgar the Peaceable      959


Mieczyslaw I becomes first ruler of Poland                960


East Frankish Otto crowned Emperor after he defeats Magyars, founds new Holy Roman Empire in Germany                962


  {Leo VIII}     Nicephorus II Phocas        963


  133 Benedict V              964


Harald Bluetooth (Harold I) converts the Danes to christianity 134 John XIII              965


Athanasios of Trebizond founds the Great Lavra (Great Monastery) on Mount Athos in Greece                969


      Basil I          970



135 Benedict VI   Anthony III          973


  [Boniface VII]
{Domnus II}


          Edward the Martyr      975


        Basil II         976


          Aethelred the Unready      978


The Danes renew their raids on England attacking Chester and Southampton     Nicholas II          980


  137 John XIV              983


  138 John XV              985


            Louis V
(the Do-Nothing)


Hugh Capet takes the French throne and the Capetian dynasty of France is founded           Capetian Dynasty
Hugh Capet



Prince Vladimir is baptized and marries a Byzantine princess.

Russia becomes a Christian nation.

Vladimir of Kiev converts to Christianity


989-99: Viking Danes attack Britain again                989


Olav I conquers Norway and proclaims it a Christian kingdom                995


Robert II succeeds Hugh Capet

a German is elected pope Gregory V
139 GregoryV
[John XVI]
        Robert II
(the Pious)


German emperor Otto III appoints Gerbert d'Aurillac pope who becomes the first French pope and assumes the name Sylvester II 140 Sylvester II   Sergius II          999


Europe sees the new millenium in with the construction of magnificent cathedrals between the 10th and 12th centuries

Greenland and Iceland are christianized


cathedral of Ani in Armenia                1001


the Egyptian ruler Hakim persecutes Christianity 141 John XVII              1003


  142 John XVIII              1004


AD: Sweden is christianized                1008



Arabs destroy the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem
143 Sergius IV              1009


Romualdo founds the Camaldolese order in Italy (Anthony's monasticism and hermits appears in Italy 144 Benedict VIII              1012


          Danish Line
Svein Forkbeard


          Edmund Ironside      1016


The Danish king Canute converts to christianity                1017


Bishop Hildebrand founds the monastery of San Miniato is founded near Florence in Italy                1018


      Eustathius          1019


1022: the Catharist/Albigenian heresy a neo-manichaean sect believing that matter is evil spreads in Languedoc (southern France)                1022


  145 John XIX              1024


      Alexius I Constantine VIII (IX) alone         1025



      Romanus III Argyrus         1028


            Henry I    1031


A teenager is elected pope Benedict IX the youngest pope ever and the last of the "dynastic" popes 146 Benedict IX              1032


Ferdinand I of Castile becomes King of Castile, Leon and Navarre                1033


        Michael IV the Paphlagonian         1034


          Harald Harefoot      1035


Muslim Umayyad dynasty in Spain ends with the death of Hisham III and the caliphrate splits into 8 other kingdoms

San Miniato monk Giovanni Gualberto founds the monastery of Vallombrosa near Florence in Italy


Cluny's abbot Odilo turns his monastery into the head of a monastic feudal system whose influence spread all over Europe                1039


          Hardicanute      1040


        Michael V Calaphates         1041



      Zoe and Theodora Edward the Confessor      1042


      Michael I          1043


  [Sylvester III]              1044


After Benedict IX gets married and sells the papacy to his godfather Gregory VI the emperor Heinrich III calls for the synod of Sutri to reform the corrupt papacy 147 Gregory VI
146 Benedict IX


  148 Clement II              1046


  146 Benedict IX              1047


  149 Damasus II              1048


Heinrich III appoints Pope Leo IX a German reformer 150 St. Leo IX              1049


The ascetics Anthony and Theodosius found the Monastery of the Caves (Pecherska Lavra) in Kiev                1050


Schism between Eastern and Western Churches

also see 867 CE

Western Cluniac monks take over Greek monasteries in southern Italy, Byzantine patriarch Michael Caerularius responds by closing Latin churches in Constantinople. Pope Leo IX sends Cardinal Humbert (considered an expert on Eastern Christianity) to Constantinople to work things out. Not knowing Leo IX had died, Humbert excommunicates Patriarch Michael in Leo's name, asserting that the Eastern church had removed "filioque" from the Creed. The Western church traditionally dates the East-West split from this event (the Great Schism).

The Church of the Pope refers to itself as the "Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church". This is contrasted, with Protestant churches and with the Orthodox Churches of the East: Greek, Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, Russian, Romanian, Serbian, etc., as an usurpation. The "Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church" was the Universal (katholiki) Church of the Roman Empire. The Pope, then Bishop of Rome, was not the ruler of that Church, but one of the Ecumenical Patriarchs, along with the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria. The Pope was allowed to be primus inter pares as a courtesy towards the ancient seat of St. Peter. Governance of the Church was also shared among the five heads of the Church and with the Emperor, who was regarded as the "Equal of the Apostles," and who had the authority to call Church Councils. After the fall of the western Empire in 476, that meant only the Emperor in Constantinople. As it happened, only that Emperor had ever called Councils. After various disputes, the Latin and Greek Churches finally broke in 1054. Each thus claimed to be the proper "Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church," but over time and aided by the enslavement of the Eastern Orhodox peoples by the Turks, the Papal use of the terminology has gained more widespread recognition of the term.

The actual reason that was used to instigate and justify the legality of the Schism was the addition, by the Pope, of one word to the Creed of Faith which had united Christianity since Constantine had called the Council at Nicea to establish it: The paragraph which refers to the Holy Spirit decrees that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and is glorified together with the Father and the Son. The pope added the word filioque which now reads that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father AND the Son. The addition of this one word had extremely serious rumifications as to the nature of the Son and reverted to considerations of heresies past, as Arianism, Monothelitism and others. The Pope declared the other four heads of the church in error and assumed the position that his church, in the altered Creed carried the correct interpretation of Christianity.

The Schism between Greek and Latin Churches came at a very bad time for the Greeks. Defeat by the Turks and the loss of Asia Minor deprived Romania (Romiosini: a reference in Greek to the Christian roman Empire) of more than half its territory. This was a catastrophe, and actually the Empire never recovered. The Emperor Alexius Comnenos appealed to the West for help. Pope Urban II called for a "Crusade," a great Christian army, not just to help the Christians in the east, but to go on and reconquer Jerusalem. The First Crusade defeated the Turks badly enough that Romania was able to recover considerable territory, but then it went on and obtained the great goal of Jerusalem, which had been in Islamic hands for 463 years. the Crusades continued and the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade instead of proceeding to Jerusalem stopped at Constantinople, laid siege, took the City and enslaved the Christians of the east for almost 60 years.

911 years after the Schism, in 1965, Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople mutually nullify the excommunications of 1054. Some 3o years later, Pope John Paul II visited Athens and recited the Nicene Creed in its original form standing in holy liturgy together with the Archbishop of the Church of Greece


I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages. Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten, not created, of one essence with the Father, through whom all things were made. For us and for our salvation, He came down from heaven and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and became man. He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and He suffered and was buried.

On the third day He rose according to the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father.

He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead. His kingdom will have no end.

And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father, who together with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified, who spoke through the prophets.

In one, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. I expect the resurrection of the dead. And the life of the age to come. Amen.

the patriarch of Constantinople and the pope in Rome excommunicate each other (the Great Schism



Seljuk Turks take Baghdad
151 Victor II     Theodora alone        1055


Ferdinand I of Castile makes himself Emperor and initiates a period of reconquest of the Moors       Michael VI Stratioticus         1056


  152 Stephen X     Isaac I Comnenos         1057


  153 Benedict X              1058


Humbert della Silva Candida publishes the rules by which popes should be elected restricting the electors to the cardinals and forbidding interference from the Roman nobility or the Holy Roman emperor and resumes the Donatist heresy (the morality of a priest determines whether he is worthy of administering sacraments) 154 Nicholas II   Constantine III Constantine X (1X) Ducas         1059


Decree for election of Popes by a college of Cardinals; beginning of Papal heyday

Svend Estridsen (Svend II) organizes the Danish church
          Philip I    1060


  155 Alexander II              1061


      John VIII          1064


The Norman Conquests

On 28 September 1066, with a favourable wind, William I The Conqueror landed unopposed at Pevensey and, within a few days, raised fortifications at Hastings. Having defeated an earlier invasion by the King of Norway at the Battle of Stamford Bridge near York in late September, Harold undertook a forced march south, covering 250 miles in some nine days to meet the new threat, gathering inexperienced reinforcements to replenish his exhausted veterans as he marched.

At the Battle of Senlac (near Hastings) on 14 October, Harold's weary and under-strength army faced William's cavalry (part of the forces brought across the Channel) supported by archers. Despite their exhaustion, Harold's troops were equal in number (they included the best infantry in Europe equipped with their terrible two-handled battle axes) and they had the battlefield advantage of being based on a ridge above the Norman positions.

The first uphill assaults by the Normans failed and a rumour spread that William had been killed; William rode among the ranks raising his helmet to show he was still alive. The battle was close-fought: a chronicler described the Norman counter-attacks and the Saxon defence as 'one side attacking with all mobility, the other withstanding as though rooted to the soil'. Three of William's horses were killed under him.

William skilfully co-ordinated his archers and cavalry, both of which the English forces lacked. During a Norman assault, Harold was killed - hit by an arrow and then mowed down by the sword of a mounted knight. Two of his brothers were also killed. The demoralised English forces fled. (In 1070, as penance, William had an abbey built on the site of the battle, with the high altar occupying the spot where Harold fell. The ruins of Battle Abbey, and the town of Battle, which grew up around it, remain.)

William was crowned on Christmas Day 1066 in Westminster Abbey.
        Norman Line
William I the Conqueror


Work is begun on building the Tower of London                1067



The Norman Conquest continues until 1069: William subdues the north of England (the "Harrying of the North" ): the region is laid waste
      Romanus IV Diogenes         1068


The Hospital of Saint John is founded in Jerusalem by Amalfi merchants                1070


Turkish Muslims defeat the Christian army of the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert, Turkey. The Muslims go on to conquer Palestine (now Israel). Turkish Muslims begin to attack Christians on pilgrimages to holy places

the Turks capture Jerusalem
      Michael VII Ducas         1071


William invades Scotland and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake.                1072


Hildebrand becomes pope Gregory VII and launches the "Gregorian" reform (celibacy of the clergy primacy of the papacy over the empire infallibility of the Church 156 St. Gregory VII              1073


The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is built the third most popoular pilgrimage site after Jerusalem and Rome     Cosmas I          1075


1076-1122 Investiture Controversy

Heinrich IV refuses and Gregory VII excommunicates and deposes him but then forgives him at Canossa (abbot Hugh of Cluny acts as mediator)


        Nicephorus III Botaniates         1078


William in a letter reminds the bishop of Rome that the King of England owes him no allegiance [Clement (III)]     Nicephorus Melissenus        1080


      EustathiusGaridas Alexius I Comnenus         1081



Bruno founds the Carthusian order at the Grande Chartreuse near Grenoble
    Nicholas III          1084


Heinrich IV invades Italy and drives Pope Gregory VII out of Rome and the Pope dies in exile prisoner of the Normans who have repelled the Germans but also sacked Rome Vacant,              1085


Alfonso I of Castile conquers Toledo 157 Victor III              1086


          William II Rufus      1087


A monk of Cluny is elected Pope Urban II 158 Urban II              1088


Henry of Burgundy (Bourgogne) comes to the aid of Castile (Spain) when it is invaded by Moors and becomes Count of Portugal

Anselm becomes Archbishop of Canterbury


1095-1291: Holy Wars - The 7 Crusades

Pope Urban II responding to an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexios Komnenos calls for a Crusade against the Muslims


1096-1099 First Crusade,defeats Seljuks,recaptures Jerusalem

Jews are persecuted by the Crusaders


The Crusaders capture Antioch                1098


(June): After a perilous overland journey that takes nearly three years, the Crusaders reach the outskirts of Jerusalem

Fall of Jerusalem

Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon capture Jerusalem

Vallombrosa monk Raniero becomes Pope Paschal II
159 Paschal II              1099



1100-1300: Construction of the Chartres Cathedral in France

England's king Henry I fights with Pope Pasquale II on the issue of lay investiture (the king elects the bishops
        Henry I Beauclerc      1100


  [Albert]              1102


The Danish king Erik Ejegod (Erik I) obtains that Lund become the archiepiscopal see for the whole of Scandinavia                1103


  [Sylvester]              1105


The Concordat of London finds a compromise between England's king Henry I and Pope Pasquale II on the issue of lay investiture (the king elects the bishops                1107


1108-37: Louis VI, King of France, consolidates royal power           Louis VI
(the Fat)


Paschal II resolves the conflict between Church and Empire by renouncing all of the Church's earthly possessions and by embracing apostolic poverty     John IX          1111


The Pope recognizes the Hospital of Saint John as separate monastic order (the Hospitallers) with headquarters in Acre                1113


Bernard of Clairvaux founds a Cistercian monastery at Clairvaux and begins a campaign against Cluny                1115


Paschal II dies 160 Gelasius II     John II Comenus        1118



The Crusaders set up new Christian states in the Holy land. The new orders of knights, Templars and the Hospitalers, are founded. These knights are also monks. They defend the Crusaders' states against Muslim attacks and protect Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land
161 Calixtus II              1119


Pope Calixtus II and German emperor Heinrich V sign the Concordat of Worms that resolves the "investiture controversy" by granting the emperor veto power over the German Church                1122


Lateran Council I                1123


  162 Honorius II              1124


  163 Innocent II              1130


      Stypiotes          1134


          Stephen      1135


Benedictine monk Suger builds the cathedral of Saint-Denis in a new style the gothic style           Louis VII
(the Young)


  [Victor IV]              1138


Alfonso of Portugal declares Portugal independent from Leon and Castile                1139



The philospher Pierre Abelard is condemned as heretic and is books are burned for his views on the Trinity and his love for Heloise
        Empress Matilda      1141


Some Crusaders settle in the Holy Land. They begin constructing Krak des Chevaliers (Castle of the Knights) in Syria. The underground storerooms of this magnificent castle contain enough supplies of food and arms to withstand a five-year siege                1142


Treat of Zamora, Leon recognizes Portugal's independence 164 Celestine II   Michael II Curcuas Manuel I        1143


Later Crusades were the result of setbacks, like the fall of Edessa in 1144 and, much worse, the loss of Jerusalem in 1187.
The Popes began to labor constantly to put together forces that could recover the Christian position in Outremer.

The Third Crusade was the most powerful and direct, but it fell short. Much, much worse was the Fourth Crusade, which was redirected by the Doge of Venice, Enrico Dandolo, to the purposes of Venice. Pope Innocent III first had to excommunicate everyone for the use of the army in Dalmatia, and then the Venicians took it, not to Palestine, but to Constantinople.
This could be seen as undoing the Schism between the Chruches, since now there was a Latin Emperor and Latin Patriarch in Romania, but it didn't accomplish the real purpose. Nor did it last long.

Bernard of Clairvaux calls for a second Crusade to rescue the besieged Latin kingdom of Jerusalem and Louis VII of France and Konrad III of Germany join the crusaders but they are defeated by the Muslims
165 Lucius II              1144


Almohads take over Muslim Spain 166 Eugenius III              1145


1146-48: Second Crusade, Louis VII on the crusade     Cosmas II Atticus          1146


1147-1149 Second Crusade

Jews are persecuted by the Crusaders
    Nicholas IV Muzalon          1147


      Theodotus II          1151


Pope annuls marriage between Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine                1152


  167 Anastasius IV   [Neophytus I]          1153



Henry II of Anjou marries Eleanor of Aquitaine and England begins to form the Angevin Empire in France
168 Adrian IV   Constantine IV Chiliarenus   Henry II Curtmantle      1154


      Lucas Chrysoberges          1156


French theologian John of Salisbury publishes the "Policraticus first doctrine of the separation of church and state but with the state subordinate to the church 169 Alexander III              1159


Alexander III excommunicates Friedrich I "Barbarossa                1160


Friedrich I "Barbarossa" raids Rome and Milan                1162


Sweden obtains an archbishop [Paschal III]              1164


Thomas Becket named Archbishop of Centerbury Cathedral, head of the church of England                1165


A Spaniard is elected pope Calixtus III [Calixtus (III)]              1168


Henry II's men murder Thomas Becket     Michael III of Anchialus          1170


Barbarossa recognizes Alexander III as Pope and is forgiven     Chariton Eugeniotes          1177



Lateran Council III

Pope recognizes Portugal's independence
    Theodosius I Boradiotes          1179


1180-1223: Philip II Augustus reigns in France

the Jewish philosopher Maimonides attempts to bridge the Talmud and Aristotle in the "Guide for the Perplexed
      Alexius II   Philip II Augustus    1180


The Muslim warrior Saladin becomes Sultan of Egypt. He is a brilliant military commander who unites the Muslim army 170 Lucius III              1181


      Basil II Camaterus Andronicus I        1183


Pope Lucius III excommunicates Peter Waldo founder of the anti-Cluniac ascetic Waldensians ("poor men of Lyons")                1184


1185-1211: Sancho I reigns in Portugal 171 Urban III     Isaac II         1185


The Vlachs rebel against the Byzantine Empire. Foundation of the Bulgaro-Vlach Empire     Nicetas II Muntanes          1186


Saladin crushes the crusaders armies at Hittin

Jerusalem falls to the Muslims

Saladdin retakes Jerusalem
172 Gregory VIII              1187


1189-1192 Third Crusade

the third Crusade is led by King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England king Philip Augustus II of France and emperor Frederick Barbarossa
    Dositheus of Jerusalem   Richard I
The Lionheart


The Teutonic Knights are founded by German lords to fight in the crusade establish their capital at Acre and adopt the Templars' white mantle and the Hospitallers' rule                1190



Richard I conquers Cyprus and captures the city of Acre
174 Celestine III   Dositheus of Jerusalem          1191


Richard I captures Jaffa makes peace with Saladin; on the way home he is captured by his enemy Duke Leopold of Austria                1192


Richard is ransomed and returned to England                1194


The Tale of Robin Hood is said to have taken place during these times when Richard was imprisoned after having left on the Third Crusade and John ruled in his stead.       Alexius III        1195


Cardinal Lothario Conti is elected pope Innocent III 175 Innocent III   John X Camaterus          1198


1199-1204: Fourth Crusade

Philip II of France begins military conquest of British Normandy and Anjou
        John Lackland      1199


The Jews are expelled from England                1200


1202-1204 Fourth Crusade;
Constantinople taken by Crusaders in employ of Venice, first break in line of Roman (Rhomaic/Byzantine) Emperors


        Isaac II (restored) with Alexius IV         1203


Fourth Crusade
Fall of Constantinople to the Latins.
The armies of the Fourth Crusade never reach the Holy Land. Instead, they raid Constantinople, capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire. The Crusaders pillage the city and put its inhabitants to the sword

the Crusaders led by Venezia sack Constantinople
      Alexius V Ducas Murtzuphlus         1204



Francis of Assisi gives up his wealth and adopts a life of absolute poverty


      Michael IV Autorianus          1207


1208-1261 Patriarchate at Nicaea

pope Innocent III launches a crusade against the Catharist/Albigensian and the Waldensian heretics


London Bridge built: Peace between England and Scotland

1209-1229 Albigensian Crusade

Cambridge University is founded in England; Innocent III excommunicates John for attacks on Church property


The Pope recognizes the Franciscan order of mendicant friars                1210


Christians defeat Almohad Muslims at Las Navas de Tolosa, Almohads expelled from Spain shortly after and Christian reconquest continues

the Jews of Toledo are massacred by the Crusaders


      Theodore II Irenicus          1213


Philip II of France defeats the combined armies of the Holy Roman Empire and England at the Battle of Bouvines                1214


King John forced to sign the Magna Carta

Lateran Council IV

the Dominican order of mendicant friars is founded in Languedoc

the fourth Lateran council defines the seven sacraments (in particular marriage and confession) and prescribes that Jews be confined in ghettos
    Maximus II          1215


Innocent III dies 176 Honorius III       Henry III      1216



1217-1221: The Fifth Crusade

Emperor Friederich II grants lands to the Teutonic Knights in Sicily


Francis of Assisi preaches to the sultan of Egypt                1219


      Germanus II John III Ducas Vatatzes         1222


Genghis Khan invades Russia           Louis VIII
(the Lion)


Emperor Friederich II grants the Teutonic Knights authority to restore order name in Prussia            Louis IX
(St. Louis)


Count Ugolino is elected pope Gregory IX 177 Gregory IX              1227


1228-29: The Sixth Crusade, led by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, reoccupies Jerusalem as part of a temporary peace treaty with the Muslims.                1228


Spanish Inquisition begins

Gregory IX institutes the Inquisition whose courts are mainly run by the Dominican monks

pope Gregory IX issues a mandate for Inquisition against the heretics


Valencia is reconquered                1238


Mongols take Kiev     Methodius II          1240



The great Tartar invasion in Central Europe
Mongols defeat Germans at Silesia, and invade Poland and Hungary
178 Celestine IV              1241


  179 Innocent IV              1243


      Manuel II          1244


1248-1254 Sixth Crusade,
St. Louis IX of France, got no further than Tunisia
The crusade ends in disaster with the capture and imprisonment of Louis

1248-1279 Alfonso III reigns in Portugal and moves capital to Lisbon

Sevilla is reconquered by Ferdinand III


Eusebius of Esztergom founds the Order of St Paul the First Hermit ("Pauline monks") by uniting all the hermits who lived in the forests of Hungary and Croatia                1250


Pope Innocent IV issues a papal bull that approves torture against heretics                1252


Marco Polo (1254-1324) is born 180 Alexander IV   Arsenius Autorianus Theodore II Lascaris         1254


        John IV Lascaris         1258


      Nicephorus II Michael VIII Paleologus         1259


Recovery of Constantinople from its Latin conquerors by the Byzantine Emperor Michael Paleologos

Patriarchate at Constantinople
181 Urban IV              1261



The Dominican monk Thomas Aquinas publishes the "Summa Contra Gentiles that reconciles science and religion


  182 Clement IV   Germanus III          1265


      Joseph I Galesiotes          1266


Rebuilding of Westminster Abbey begun by Henry III Vacant,              1269


            Philip III
(the Bold)


Marco Polo travels to China 1271-1295 183 Gregory X              1271


William Wallace (1272-1305)

Scottish national hero. Son of a small landowner, he began his attacks on English settlements and garrisons in 1297, after Edward I declared himself ruler of Scotland. His army defeated a much larger English force at Stirling Bridge, captured Stirling Castle, and then ravaged N England, for which Wallace was knighted and proclaimed guardian of the Scottish kingdom. In 1298 Edward I invaded Scotland and defeated Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk. Disgraced, Wallace resigned his guardianship and was replaced by the future Robert I, but apparently continued to fight a guerrilla war. In 1305 he was arrested by the English and hanged, then disemboweled, beheaded, and quartered. The next year Robert raised the rebellion that eventually won independence for Scotland.
        Edward I Longshanks      1272


Rudolph I becomes the first Habsburg ruler of Austria                1273


Council of Lyon II                1274


      John XI Beccus          1275



184 Innocent V              1276


  187 Nicholas III              1277


  188 Martin IV              1281


1282-84: Edward I of England defeats Wales     Joseph I Galesiotes Andronicus II        1282


Jews are massacred in Germany     Gregory II Cyprius          1283


  189 Honorius IV         Philip IV
(the Fair)


Alexander III, King of Scotland dies while travelling to meet his new bride, Yolande de Dreux, near Kinghorn in Fife. Scottish nobles gather at Scone to elect six Guardians who will act as a provisional government, The Community of the Realm of Scotland. The Guardians will work to protect Scotland in the name of Alexander's only surviving relative, his three-year-old granddaughter, Margaret, the Maid of Norway and Scotland's Queen-in-waiting.                1286


  190 Nicholas IV              1288


      Athanasius I          1289


The Teutonic Knights conquer all of Prussia                1290



Edward I bullies Scottish lords and nobles into recognising him as the supreme overlord of Scotland. Custody of Scotland, together with its castles and their possessions, are handed over to the English king. Court of Claims to the Scottish throne begins in Berwick.

The Muslims capture the city of Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. This action sees the end of the Crusades

defeated by the Muslims at Acre Hospitallers and Templars move their headquarters from Acre to Cyprus and Teutonic Knights move their headquarters from Acre to Venice

the Moslems expel the Crusaders from the Middle East


John Balliol is named as the new King of Scotland and is enthroned at Scone on St Andrew's Day. Vacant,              1292


Edward I declares war on France. King John and his Scottish nobles refuse to fight the French on the side of the English - they are soon joined in revolt by the Welsh.

England and Portugal sign a commercial treaty which begins a long friendly relationship between the two

Most exaggerated claims for the mediaeval Papacy; humiliated byPhilip the Fair of France

the hermit Pope Celestine V abdicates after a few months
191 St. Celestine V   John XII Cosmas          1294


Edward I summons the Model Parliament                1295


Scots rebel against Edward I of England. War begins between England and Scotland. English army massacre civilians at Berwick and Scots retaliate by doing the same throughout Northumberland. The English army marches north and takes Dunbar, Roxburgh, Jedburgh, Edinburgh, Stirling and Montrose. Edward takes the Stone of Destiny from Scone, then moves back south to Berwick to take the oaths of loyalty from over 2000 Scottish nobles (the Ragman Roll).                1296


Scots rebel against Edward I of England. William Wallace kills the Sheriff of Lanark and joins a campaign supported by the Bishop of Glasgow, Robert Wishart, to drive English sheriffs from Scotland. Wallace gathers a small peasant army to chase Edward's justiciar, William Ormesby, from Scone Abbey. Wallace defeats the English Garrison in Glasgow at the Battle of the Bell o' the Brae. The Scottish nobles gather at Irvine, but are forced to surrender to an army of English knights. Wallace is joined by the army of Andrew Murray, who has successfully reclaimed the north-east from the English. The army of Wallace and Murray rout a vastly superior English army at Stirling Bridge.                1297


William Wallace is knighted and appointed Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland. Edward I invades Scotland with a powerful army, made up predominantly of Irish and Welsh infantry. The Scottish army are defeated at the Battle of Falkirk. Wallace steps down as Guardian of Scotland, to be replaced by Robert Bruce and John Comyn.                1298


Ottoman Empire founded in Turkey                1299


Bruce resigns as joint Guardian of Scotland and is replaced Ingram de Umfraville, a kinsman of King John, and ally of Comyn. England invades Scotland and refuse a personal demand from John Comyn to restore King John and give up Scottish lands. Continued diplomatic pressure from France and Rome (where Wallace was acting as an envoy) forces Edward to sign a truce and promise to release the Bishop of Glasgow from his English prison.

Boniface VIII announces the first Jubilee Year during which special indulgences are granted


The Pope overrides the English terms of King John's release and hands him over to the French. Wallace returns from France with news of possible assistance from King Philip IV. Robert Bruce, fearing a return by King John would mean transfer of power to his enemy, John Comyn, defects to Edward. The French are defeated by a Flemish peasant army at Courtrai.                1302



Wallace, Comyn and Simon Fraser continue to struggle against English occupation and defeat an English expeditionary force at Roslin, near Edinburgh. Edward invades again with a full-strength force, after having signed a peace treaty with a much-weakened France. Wallace gains financial support from Bishop Wishart of Glasgow to continue the struggle.
193 Benedict XI   Athanasius I          1303


Wallace's small force is defeated by an army of English knights at Happrew, near Peebles. Wallace survives, but becomes a fugitive. Edward lays siege to Stirling Castle, the last major fortification to resist Edward's army.                1304


Philip IV of France secures the election of a French Pope, Clement V, who moved the Papal court from Rome to Avignon, France in 1309

William Wallace is betrayed and captured by John Menteith while visiting Glasgow to meet with Robert Bruce. Wallace is arrested in Scottland by the English taken to London for a trial and was subsequently hanged, drawn, and quartered at Smithfield.

the French archbishop of Bordeaux becomes pope Clement V and moves the papacy to Avignon in France the peak of France's influence over the papacy
A 194 Clement V              1305


New Scottish rebellion against English rule led by Robert Bruce. Robert I the Bruce crowned King of Scotland (to 1329) at Scone

The Jews are expelled from France


Edward I dies on march north to crush Robert Bruce. Edward II King of England (to 1327)         Edward II      1307


Papacy moves to Avignon, 1309; lines of Popes reside at Avignon, Rome, and Pisa during the Babylonia Captivity (1309-1377) and the Great Schism (1378-1417).

the Teutonic Knights move their capital from Venice to Prussia and establishes a theocratic state

the Hospitallers conquer the island of Rhodes and move their capital there establishing an ecclesiastical principality under the eastern Roman empire


      Nephon I          1310


1311-1312 Council of Vienne                1311


Order of Knights Templar abolished. The Hospitallers are awarded the Templars' possessions in western Europe Cyprus and Greece                1312


Pope Clement V abolishes the order of the Knights Templar after drumming up false accusations for the purpose of seizing their wealthy assetts with the help of French king Philippe IV                1313



Battle of Bannockburn: Robert Bruce defeats Edward II and makes Scotland independent

Last Templars Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, tortured & burned by Philip IV of France.

Jacques de Molay the grand master of the Templars is burned at the stake in Paris
Vacant,         Louis X
(the Stubborn)


      John XIII Glycys          1315


  A 195 John XXII         John I
Philip V
(the Tall)


      Gerasimus I          1320


Franciscan monk William of Occam is excommunicated for preaching that the Church should not own properties                1321


            Charles IV
(the Fair)


The Church condemns Paschal II's apostolic poverty as heresy     Isaiah, Jesaias          1323


Marco Polo dies

Franciscan monk Marsilio da Padova publishes "Defender Of Peace in which he argues that the Church has not authority over secular affairs and that the purpose of a state is to guarantee peace


Beginning of the Renaissance in Italy
Peak of the Muslim Empire in Spain
Small cannon begins use


1327-77: Edward III rules in England and is the rival of Philip VI of Valois

German emperor Ludwig IV invades Italy and appoints pope John XXII
        Edward III      1327



1328-50: Philip VI of Valois rules in France and the Valois dynsaty is founded as a runoff of the Capetian dynsaty

English win a major naval battle against the French at Sluis, in the Netherlands
      Andronicus III   Valois Dynasty
Philip VI


  A 196 Benedict XII   John XIV Calecas          1334


Jews are massacred in Germany                1336


Hundred Years War between England and France begun when the French under Philip VI of Valois invades English Gascony                1337


England allies with the Holy Roman Empire                1338


Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War: England wins many victories and wins control of most of southwestern France

Alfonso XI of Castile wins major victory over the Moors at the Battle of the Salado River English win a major naval battle against the French at Sluis, in the Netherlands


        John V         1341


  A 197 Clement VI              1342


First land battle of the Hundred Years War: Battle of Crecy won by the English                1346


The English capture Calais

1347-51: The Black plague: 25 million dead

the "black death" (the plague) causes the decline of monasticism
    Isidore I Bucharis John VI Cantancuzenus         1347



Sergius of Radonezh founds the Monastery of the Holy Trinity (at Sergiev Posad the new center of Russian christianity
    Callistus I     John II
(the Good)


  A 198 Innocent VI              1352


      Philotheus Coccinus          1353


      Callistus I          1355


Battle of Poitiers won decisively by the English led by Edward the Black Prince, French King John II taken prisoner                1356


Peace of Bretigny signed by the French and English forces the French to cede all of Aquitaine to the English                1360


  A 199 Urban V              1362


King Charles V rules in France: leads the French in the Caroline phase of the Hundred Years' War     Philotheus Coccinus     Charles V
(the Wise)


1369-72: Ottomans conquer Bulgaria

1369-89: Caroline Phase of the Hundred Years' War: French oppose the English but only partial victory is acheived and they expel the English from much of France


  R 200 Gregory XI
leaves Avignon, 1376; returns to Rome, 1377



A Castilian (Spanish) fleet defeats the English fleet off La Rochelle


The Good Parliament in England called by Edward the Black Prince introduces many reforms of government; Death of Edward the Black Prince aged 45; The Civil Dominion of John Wyclif an Oxford don calling for Church reforms     Macarius Andronicus IV        1376


The French launch an offensive against the English that supported by their navy that leaves the English with only a few coastal areas; the French and Castilian navies begin to attack the British shoreline and the English are forced to take the offensive

pope Gregory XI moves back the papacy to Rome from Avignon
        Richard II      1377


1378-1417: The Great Schism: Popes fight for control of the Roman Catholic Church in Avignon, France and Rome, Italy

pope Gregory XI dies and the Roman nobles elect Bartolomeo Prignano as pope Urban VI

the Oxford theologian John Wycliffe preaches that the Church has fallen into sin that it ought to give up all its property and that the clergy should live in complete poverty
R 201 Urban VI
resides at Rome, Anti-Pope elected at Avignon; Great Schism


      Nilus Cerameus John V (restored)         1379


1380-1422: At the same time as the Great Schism, the French King Charles VI rules in France

c. 1380 John Wycliffe (c. 1320 - 1384), an English priest, begins the first English translation of the Bible.
          Charles VI
(the Mad, Well-Beloved, or Foolish)


House of Aviz formed by John I who succeeded the Portugese throne after 2 years of civil war, during his reign the Portugese carved a huge colonial empire; John I defeats Castile at the Battle of Ajubarrota

Lithuania converts to christianity as is unified with Poland


Permanent alliance between England and Portugal at the Treaty of Windsor                1386


Caroline Phase of the Hundred Years' War ends with France's partial sucess

the Serbs are defeated by Ottoman Turks of Sultan Murad I
R 202 Boniface IX   Anthony IV          1389


      Macarius John VII        1390



The Jews of Iberia are forced to convert
    Anthony IV Manuel II        1391


Charles VI of France attacked by mental illness: Philip the Bold of Burgundy seizes French power                1392


  A [Benedict (XIII)]
1394-1417 d.1423


Philip the Bold of France signs a new and longer truce with England

the English translation of the Bible begun by John Wycliffe is completed (the "Wycliffe" Bible) but is declared heretic by the Church (the "Vulgate" being the only authorized version)


Kalmar Agreement unites Denmark, Norway and Sweden     Callistus II Xanthopulus          1397


Richard II of England overthrown by his cousin Henry IV of Lancaster         Plantagenet, Lancastrian Line
Henry IV Bolingbroke


Philip the Bold of Burgundy dies and is succeeded by his son John the Fearless in Burgundy

Battle of Formigny won by French due to artillery and Normandy falls to the French shortly after

English defeated by the French at the Battle of Castillon and the English lose Aquitaine; English expelled from France except for Port Calais and the war ends

Isabella of Spain convokes a great Cortes (Parliament) in Toledo

Ottoman Turks annex Hungary

Ottoman Turks make peace with Persia
R 203 Innocent VII              1404


  R 204 Gregory XII
1406-1415 d.1417


John the Fearless of Burgundy plunges France into civil war                1407


Council of Pisa,adds third Pope at Pisa P Alexander V              1409



the Teutonic Knights are defeated by Jagiello's Polish-Lithuanian army at the battle of Tannenberg
P [John (XXIII)]
1410-1415 d.1419


St. Joan of Arc, Born at Domremy in Champagne, probably on 6 January, 1412; Burnt at the stake at Rouen, 30 May, 1431.                1412


          Henry V      1413


1414-1418 Council of Constance, called by Emperor Sigismund, Papal interregnum 1415-1417, resolves Great Schism, but principle of Council is threat to Papal authority                1414


Battle of Agincourt won by King Henry V of the English; Portugese advance in Morocco successful after the capture of Ceuta

1415-35: The Lancastrian Phase of the Hundred Years' War: The English have inital success with an alliance with Burgundy, but the French halt the English advance

the heretic Jan Hus is burned at the stake at Constance for opposing the sale of indulgences and claiming that the Church is a human invention
Vacant,              1415


      Joseph II          1416


English begin conquest of Normandy

the Western Schism ends at the council of Constance with the election of Martin V
205 Martin V              1417


John the Fearless of Burgundy occupies London

1418-60: Portugal sponsers the exploration of the African coastline


English capture Paris and the French are forced to sign the Treaty of Troyes which disinherited the dauphin made Henry V of England became the new heir to the French throne                1420


Henry V dies in England
Charles the dauphin of France is named Charles VII after his father Charles VI dies and begins to fight in southern and central France against the English and reigns until 1461
        Henry VI Charles VII
(the Well-Served or Victorious)



German Civil War

1423-29: French and Scots wage war with English
A [Clement (VIII)]


English Duke of Bedford defeats the French at the battle of Verneuil                1424


        John VIII        1425


Portugal discovers the Azores                1427


English besiege Orleans                1428


English advance in France halted

A French force led by military commander Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc) relieves the siege of Orleans; Charles VII crowned king of France at Rheims , deep in English teritory


Burgundians hand over Joan of Arc to the English and she is executed the next year                1430


1431-1445 Council of Basil.

St. Joan of Arc, Burnt at the stake at Rouen, 30 May, 1431.
(Eugenius) IV              1431


Burgundy changes allegiance from England to France: English forces seriously overextended, and the English are evtually driven from France                1435


French regain Paris                1436



James I of the Scots assassinated


Council at Ferrara & Florence, 1439-1440, attended by John VIII Palaeologus.

Emperor John VIII, hoping for Western military aid against the Turks, travels to Italy and negotiates a reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches at the Council of Florence. When he returns East, leaders of the Greek Orthodox Church refuse to accept the reunion.

Treaty between Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church


1440-93: Frederick III rules the Holy Roman Empire     Metrophanes II          1440


Second Ottoman siege of Constantinople                1441


      Gregory III Mammas          1443


Treaty of Tours: five-year peace with England and France; Portugal sails as far as Cape Verde                1444


  207 Nicholas V              1447


Renaissance begins

Prince Basil II of Russia imprisons Bishop Isidore of Moscow, a Greek, for accepting the reunion of Florence. The Russian Orthodox Church declares its organizational independence from Constantinople and elects the first native-born Russian bishop, Jonas I.


France at war with England, recovers Normandy       Constantine XI (XIII) Paleologos        1449


Florence becomes the centre of the Renaissance

Battle of Formigny won by French due to artillery and Normandy falls to the French shortly after
    Athanasius II          1450



Leonardo DaVinci, the quintessential Renaissance man of enduring genius born in the Tuscan village of Vinci.


Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans under Mehmet II.
Last Byzantine Emperor Constantine Paleologos dies during final assult on the City.
Ottomans change its name to Istanbul, which is the phonetic pronunciation in Greek of ³To The City² (ees-teen-poli).

End of the Byzantine Empire

1453-1455 Patriarchaye at Church of the Holy Apostles

English defeated by the French at the Battle of Castillon and the English lose Aquitaine; English expelled from France except for Port Calais and the 100-year war ends.
    Gennadius II Scholarius Last Emperor of The Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium, Constantine XI (XIII) Paleologos is killed in the final battle defending Constantinople        1453


Patriarchate at Convent of St. Mary Pammakaristos

1455-85: English Wars of the Roses
208 Calixtus III              1455


Ottomans capture Athens

1456-1462: Reign of Vlad the Impaler.
    Isidore II Xanthopulus          1456


  209 Pius II              1458


Portugese reach Sierra Leone                1460


Last piece of Romania, the fortress of Monemvasia, ceded by theDespot Thomas.         Plantagenet, Yorkist Line
Edward IV
Louis XI
(the Spider)


1462-1505: Ivan the Great rules as the first czar in Russia, ends tribute payed to the Mongols

Vlad IV of Walachia is defeated by Ottoman Sultan Muhammad II


      Syropulus          1463


  210 Paul II   Joseph, Ioasaph          1464



Kazimierz IV's Polish army defeats the Teutonic Knights and annexes western Prussia to Poland
    Marcus II Xylokaraves          1466


Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile marry to form a united Spain                1469


  211 Sixtus IV   Symeon I of Trebizond   Again,
Edward IV


Nicolaus Copernicus Born: 19 Feb 1473 in Torun, Poland                1473


      Raphael I          1475


      Maximus III          1476


Sixtus IV authorizes the Spanish Inquisition

Ottomans conquer Albania


Mongols driven from Russia

Isabella of Spain convokes a great Cortes (Parliament) in Toledo


      Symeon I of Trebizond          1481


      Symeon I of Trebizond          1482



        Edward V Charles VIII
(Father of his People)


Pope Innocent VIII orders the persecution of witches 212 Innocent VIII              1484


Henry VII becomes first Tudor King of England         House of Tudor
Henry VII Tudor


Pico della Mirandola a student of the Kabbalah tries to reconcile all religions and philosophies     Nephon II          1486


Battle of Stoke Field: In final engagement of the Wars of the Roses Henry VII defeats Yorkist army "led" by Lambert Simnel (who was impersonating Edward the nephew of Edward IV the only plausible royal alternative to Henry who was confined in the Tower of London).                1487


      Dionysius I          1489


      Maximus IV          1491


Christopher Colombus sails west in search of the Indies.
Disvovery of the Americas.
The New World

Moors driven from their last stronghold in Granada
Granada is reconquered by the Christians

Treaty of Etaples signed by England and France which settled their outstanding difference

pope Alexander VI and his son Cesare Borgia become famous for their cruelty

Jews and Muslims are expelled from Spain
213 Alexander VI Borgia                      1492


1493-96: Columbus's second voyage                1493


Treaty of Tordesillas gives Portugal territory in Brazil                1494



1495-1521: Portugese power reaches it's height under King Emanuel, but at the end of his reign Portugal began to decline


1497-99: Vasco da Gama makes first voyage to India

The Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola is excommunicated and hanged and burnt as an heretic

John Cabot discovers Newfoundland.
    Nephon II          1497


Columbus's Third Voyage     Joachim I     Louis XII    1498


European Jews divide into "Sephardim" (Spanish and Portuguese Jews) and "Askenazim" (German and Polish Jews                1500


First black slaves in America                1501


Portugese build colony in India

Columbus's Fourth Voyage
    Nephon II          1502


Giuliano Della Rovere is elected pope Julius II 214 Pius III

215 Julius II


      Joachim I          1504


Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal

Pope Julius II decides to rebuild the Basilica of St Peter


the Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus publishes "The Praise of Folie which advocates a return to the moral values of early Christianity         Henry VIII      1509



215 Julius II recovers by combat all of Papal States, 1512-1517;

Lateran Council V


Giovanni de' Medici is elected pope Leo X 216 Leo X Medici   Theoleptus I          1513


Leo X appoints Raphael chief architect of Saint Peter's Basilica                1514


            Francis I    1515


1516-1917 Ottoman Empire rule

Charles I of Spain acsends the throne of Spain

a Jewish ghetto is instituted in Venezia

a Greek translation of the New Testament done by Erasmus (Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus) is printed


Reformation begins
The Protestant Reformation begins at Wittenberg when Martin Luther publishes his "95 Theses" against the Catholic practice of selling indulgences . Leo X dismissed Martin Luther
as "some drunken German," but Luther's movement not only shook Francia, it shattered it. A division something like the Great Schism happened again, but this time it was not over who would be Pope, but whether there would be a Pope at all.

Protestantism is born

Ottomans conquer Egypt and rule Arabia

the Ottoman empire conquers Jerusalem


Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigates the globe

Charles I of Spain chosen Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

Reformation in Switzerland


Luther excommunicated by Pope Leo X

Luther creates his German translation of the New Testament.

1520-1566: Height of the Ottoman Empire by Seleiman I


Ottoman Turks invade Hungary

1521-29: Spain at war with France

Henry VIII receives the title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther .


a Dutch is elected Adrian VI 217 Adrian VI   Jeremias I          1522



Giulio de' Medici is elected pope Clement VII
218 Clement VII              1523


Peace between England and France made by Henry VIII

the grand master of the Teutonic Knights is appointed duke of Prussia


Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent destroys the Hungarain kingdom after the Battle of Mohacs.

Spain orders all ships to travel in groups due to pirates

Tyndale creates his English version of the Pentateuch.

Martin Luther prints his German translation of the Bible


Holy Roman Empire attacks Rome, imprisons Pope Clement VII- end of the Italian Renaissance, Sweden becomes Lutheran                1527


Henry VIII declares himself head of the English church, forcibly cuts the Anglican bishops off from communion with Rome, calls the Reformation Parliament, and marries Anne Boleyn.

The Anglican Church is born

Ottomans reach Vienna


1530s: Spanish discover silver and gold mines in the New World

defeated at Rhodes by the Turks the Hospitallers move to Malta under the king of Spain


Sir Thomas More resigns over the question of Henry VIII's divorce                1532


Spain conquers the Inca Empire in Peru

1533-37: Danish Civil War

1533-84: Reign of Ivan IV the Terrible

Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn and is excommunicated by Pope Clement VII; Thomas Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury


Henry VIII declares himself supreme head of the Church of England 219 Paul III              1534


1535-38: Ferdinand's second Spanish-French War

Spain attacks Tunis

Sir Thomas More is beheaded in Tower of London for failing to take the Oath of Supremacy



Reformation reaches Norway and Denmark

William Tyndale is burned at the stake for translating the Bible into English

Anne Boleyn is beheaded; Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour; dissolution of monasteries in England begins under the direction of Thomas Cromwell completed in 1539.


Jane Seymour dies after the birth of a son the future Edward VI                1537


Ignatius of Loyola founds the Society of Jesus (Jesuits which believes in free will and in salvation through good deeds (not just faith)

Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves following negotiations by Thomas Cromwell; Henry divorces Anne of Cleves and marries Catherine Howard; Thomas Cromwell executed on charge of treason.


Reformation in Scotland, establishes the Presbyterian Church

Spain attacks Algiers

Ottoman Turks annex Hungary


1542-44: Ferdinand's third Spanish-French War

Catherine Howard is executed


Nicolaus Copernicus publishes De Revolutionibus with dedication to the Pope, dies.

Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr; alliance between Henry and Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) against Scotland and France


1545-1563 Council of Trent
19th Ecumenical Council

1545-1650: French Wars of Religion


      Joannicus I          1546


Ivan IV "The Terrible" becomes Czar of Russia

the Pope convenes the first Council of Trento in response to the Protestant Reformation ("counter-reformation
        Edward VI Henry II    1547


The Catholic missionary Frances Xavier reaches Japan                1549



220 Julius III              1550


1551-59: Ferdinand's fourth Spanish-French War, treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis ends wars between Spain and France and Spain becomes the dominant power in Italy

Archbishop Cranmer publishes Forty-two Articles of religion.


Edward VI dies, Queen (Bloody) Mary I succeeds him, restores the Catholic Church to England

Ottoman Turks make peace with Persia
        Lady Jane Grey      1553


Execution of Lady Jane Grey                1554


  221 Marcellus II   Joseph, Joasaph II          1555


Phillip II ascends the Spanish throne

1556-1598: Reign of Phillip II of Spain


France declares bankruptcy                1557


Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England, restores Protestant Church

English lose Port Calais to France
        Elizabeth I      1558


French and Habsburgs sign the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, ending Spain's wars with France

1559-1598: French Wars of Religion
223 Pius IV         Francis II    1559


Madrid made capital of Spain

Ottoman Turks destroy Spanish fleet

The Geneva Bible is created. This version is the one used by Shakespeare and also by the Pilgrims who came to the United States on the Mayflower.

Treaty of Berwick between Elizabeth I and Scottish reformers; Treaty of Edinburgh among England France and Scotland
          Charles IX    1560



Edict of Orleans ends persecution Huguenots in France


The Thirty-nine Articles which complete establishment of the Anglican Church                1563


Ivan IV battles the Boyars (nobles) for power in Russia

William Shakespeare born.

Michelangelo builds the dome of St. Peter's Church in Rome


      Metrophanes III          1565


  224 St. Pius V              1566


Joseph Karo/Caro publishes the "Shulhan Aruk the code of Jewish law

Murder of Lord Darnley husband of Mary Queen of Scots probably by Earl of Bothwell; Mary Queen of Scots marries Bothwell is imprisoned and forced to abdicate; James VI King of Scotland


The political divisions of the Reformation were settled by war.
Protestant Netherlands, revolts against Catholic Spain

Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England and is imprisoned by Elizabeth I at Fotheringay Castle.


Spanish and Italian fleets defeat Turkey at the Battle of Lepanto                1570


Tatars invade and burn Moscow                1571


Peace of Constantinople ends Turkish attacks on Europe

Tycho Brahe observes supernova, demonstrates lack of parallax, becomes famous
225 Gregory XIII   Jeremias II Tranos          1572



1574-76: Fifth Huguenot War in France
          Henry III    1574


Spanish troops sack Antwerp                1576


Alliance between England and Netherlands; Francis Drake sails around the world (to 1580 )                1577


1578-1655: Spain rules Portugal                1578


      Metrophanes III          1579


1580-1640: House of Aviz ends, Sixty Years' Captivity of Portugal by Spain     Jeremias II Tranos          1580


Russians settle Siberia                1581


5/15 October 1582
Gregorian Calendar instituted

The Geneva Bible is created. This version is the one used by Shakespeare and also by the Pilgrims who came to the United States on the Mayflower.

Pope Gregory XIII institutes the Gregorian Calendar


William of Orange assassinated     Pachomius II          1584


  226 Sixtus V   Theoleptus II          1585



Patriarchate at Palace of the Wallachians, Vlach Saray


Mary, Queen of the Scots, is executed

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, was born on December 8, 1542. She was well known for her beauty, her wit, her learning, and her misfortunes. She was the daughter of James V of Scotland by Marie of Lorraine, a French princess of the family of Guise. Her father died a few days after her birth, and on September 9, 1543, she was crowned queen of Scotland.

In 1548 she was pledged in marriage to Francis, Dauphin of France, son of Henry II and Catharine de'Medic, and in the same year she was brought to France to be educated at the French court. When she grew up she added to a striking and fascinating personal beauty all the accomplishments and charms which a perfect education can give.

Her marriage with the dauphin was celebrated April 24, 1558, in the Church of Notre Dame, and when Mary I of England died in the same year, she opposed the crowning of Elizabeth I.

On July 10, 1559, Henry Ii died and was succeeded by Francis II. Mary thus became Queen of France, but Francis died December 5, 1560. She was childless and had littlepower at court, where the influence of Catharine de'Medici was now paramount. In the same year her mother died, and she then returned to Scotland.

Brought up a Roman Catholic and used to the carefree life of the French court, she found the dominant Protestantism of Scotland and the austere manners of her subjects almost intolerable. Nevertheless, the first period of her reign was fairly successful; and she strove to placate the Protestants. The Protestants, however, were soon estranged by her unfortunate marriage with her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, a Catholic, who on February 9, 1567, was blown up by gunpowder as the result of a treacherous plot he himself inspired. Three months later Mary married Earl of Bothwell, whom public opinion accused of the murder of Darnley.

From this time a series of misfortunes struck the queen and a general revolutionary uprising took place. In the battle of Carberry Hill, Bothwell was defeated and fled, and Mary was confined in Lochleven Castle and compelled to abdicate. She escaped with her life and fled to England. Here she was immediately imprisoned, first at Carlisle, afterwards in various other places, and last in Fotheringay Castle. She was imprisoned for 18 years and finally beheaded by Elizabeth on October 25, 1586.

Sixtus V creates Congregation of the Holy Roman and Universal Inquisition or Holy Office

1587-1616: William Shakespeare's productive years
    Jeremias II Tranos          1587


1588: 1588: Spanish Empire at it's height consists of most of South America, Central America, Mexico, Florida, Cuba and the Phillipines

Defeat of Spanish Armada, turning point of the Spanish Empire


1589-1610: "Good King Henry" or Henry IV of France reigns as one of France's most beloved kings

Patriarch Jeremias II of Constantinople raises Metropolitan Job of Moscow to the rank of Patriarch of Moscow and of All Russia, making him the head of the largest Orthodox church. Moscow would come to be called "the Third Rome."
          Bourbon Dynasty
Henry IV


  227 Urban VII              1590


  229 Innocent IX              1591


  230 Clement VIII              1592


Henry IV of France publically converts to Catholicism                1593


Henry IV crowned King of France at Chartres Cathedral and establishes the Bourbon dynasty and basically ends the French wars of religion                1594


At the Union of Brest-Litovsk, several million Ukrainian and Byelorussian Orthodox Christians, living under Polish rule, leave the Russian Orthodox Church and recognize the Pope of Rome, without giving up their Byzantine liturgy and customs. This was the beginning of what is variously known as the Uniate, Eastern Rite Catholic, or Greek Catholic Church.     Matthew II          1596



Irish rebellion under Hugh O'Neill Earl of Tyrone (finally put down 1601)

Patriarchate at St. Demetrius Monastery at Xyloporta
    Theophanes I Karykes          1597


Treaty of Nantes ends French civil war between Protestants and Catholics, and Spanish troops expelled from France Boris Godunov becomes Czar of Russia     Matthew II          1598


Johannes Kepler, 29, meets Tycho, 53, in Prague

Elizabeth I grants charter to East India Company

Patriarchate at Church of St. George, Phanar Quarter

the philosopher Giordano Bruno is executed as an heretic in Rome for claiming that the universe is infinite


Elizabethan Poor Law charges the parishes with providing for the needy; Essex attempts rebellion and is executed                1601


1600-1608:William Shakespeare's period for great tragedies: Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth
    Neophytus II          1602


Sir Walter Raleigh arrested, tried and imprisoned     Matthew II   House of Stuart
James I


King James (1566-1625) of England commissions the "King James" translation of the Bible                1604


Gunpowder Plot; Guy Fawkes and other Roman Catholic conspirators fail in attempt to blow up Parliament and James I 231 Leo XI              1605


Rembrandt (1606-1669) born.                1606


Spain goes bankrupt; English found Jamestown

Dutch destroy Spanish fleet at Gibraltar
    Neophytus II          1607



Polish army occupy Moscow and set up a puppet Samuel de Champlain establishes Quebec


Nine-year truce between Spain and Holland agreed

Samuel de Champlain founds French colony in Quebec

Catholic League formed to counter Protestant Union in Germany


Galileo publishes Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger or Message). Kepler defends it without having seen telescope

Hudson Bay discovered.
          Louis XIII    1610


James I's authorized version (King James Version) of the Bible is completed; English and Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster

Gustavus Adolphus elected King of Sweden.


A Stock Exchange is founded in Amsterdam     Cyril I Lucaris          1612


Russian National Assembly chooses Michael Romanov as the new tsar

Spanish invade the Bavarian Palatinate in Germany


James I dissolves the "Addled Parliament" which has failed to pass any legislation                1614


William Shakespeare dies                1616


1618-1648:Thirty Years' War between Catholics and Protestants: Protestants in Germany fight the Catholics for freedom, and are later supported by Denmark, Sweden and then France, the war devastates Germany

As the Spanish kept trying to defeat the Dutch since the 1568 revolt, the Emperor moved to suppress heresy in Bohemia.
After Imperial forces secured Bohemia and advanced in Germany, France began to subsidize opposition. This brought Sweden into the war; and after Swedish fortunes faded, France, a Catholic state, entered the war against the Catholic side. Spanish power was permanently weakened.


Kepler publishes Harmony of the World containing 3rd law

1619-1624:Dutch monopoly over Spice Trade in Indonesia



Imperial army commanded by Tilly routes Bohemians at White Mountain near Prague

Pilgrims aboard the "Mayflower" land first on Cape Cod near where Provincetown will later stand, then the next day land on the mainland and found the Plymoth Plantation. The first rock they step on coming of the ship is remembered as Plymouth Rock. The colony establishes a foothold in what will later become Massachusetts.
    Cyril I Lucaris          1620


  233 Gregory XV              1621


Protestants defeat Tilly at Wiesloch in April

Moliere (1622-73) is born.


Publication of Shakespeare's First Folio 234 Urban VIII   Cyril I Lucaris          1623


Louis XIII chooses Cardinal Richelieu as his first minister                1624


1625-29: Danish phase of the Thirty Years' War: Christian IV of Denmark and Norway, supported by Lutheran and Calvinist princes, invades Saxony for mostly non-religious resasons, but is unsuccessful         Charles I      1625


Dutch found New Amsterdam (New York

Saint Peter's Basilica is inaugurated in Rome


Christian IV of Denmark retreats into the Jutland peninsula

Edict of Restitution: Nullifies all Protestant lands in Catholic territory, total victory for the Imperial cause is noticed


Petition of Right; Charles I forced to accept Parliament's statement of civil rights in return for finances                1628


1629-32 Galileo publishes Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. Five months after publication it is banned and Galileo summoned to Rome. He goes. Kepler dies in 1630

Treaty of Lubeck deprives Denmark of territories in northern Germany



Third phase of the Thirty Years' War: Sweden invades northern Germany with the support of Protestants and France

Dutch colonists invade Brazil from the Portugese (occupied by Spain)

Swedish invade Pomerania under Gustav II Adolph

Holy Roman Empire seiges Magdeburg 1631: Imperial troops sack Magdeburg, Germany


Trial of Galileo Galilei
Galileo is convicted of heresy, confined to house arrest, forbidden to publish anything.
    Cyril I Lucaris          1633


      Cyril I Lucaris          1634


Third and last phase of the Thirty Years' War                1635


      Neophytus III          1636


      Cyril I Lucaris          1637


Louis XIV was born on September 5, 1638 of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria. Louis XIII died in 1643, and Anne aided by Cardinal Mazarin, ruled as regents in place of Louis XIV in France.                1638


      Parthenius I          1639


Portugal becomes independent of Spain

English civil war between the Cavaliers (Loyalty) and Roundheads (Parliament)

Cardinal Richelieu dies


1642-43 Galileo dies. Isaac Newton is born.

French found Montreal

Charles I fails in attempt to arrest five members of Parliament and rejects Parliament's Nineteen Propositions; Civil War (until 1645) begins with battle of Edgehill between Cavaliers (Royalists) and Roundheads (Parliamentarians



Louis XIV becomes King of France and names Cardinal Mazarin as his first minister

Solemn League and Covenant is signed by Parliament .
          Louis XIV
(the Sun King)


  235 Innocent X   Parthenius II          1644


Formation of Cromwell's New Model Army; Battle of Naseby; Charles I defeated by Parliamentary forces                1645


English colonize the Bahamas

Oliver Cromwell defeats the Royalists
Parliament demands reforms. Charles I surrenders to the Scots
    Joannicius II          1646


The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 secured Dutch independence and the Protestant states in Germany. The Pope lost even theoretical and spiritual authority over most of Northern Europe.

200 000 Jews are slaughtered during the Russian invasion of Poland by Cossacks led by Bogdan Chmielnicki
    Parthenius II          1648


England declared a Commonwealth. Charles I is tried and executed; The Commonwealth in which ; England is governed as a republic is established and lasts until 1660; Cromwell harshly suppresses Catholic rebellions in Ireland         The Commonwealth
Oliver Cromwell


The Jews are expelled from Wien (Vienna)

Charles II lands in Scotland; is proclaimed king.


      Joannicius II          1651


South Africa beginings:
The Dutch set up a mainland base for their East India Company (VOC), in what is now Cape Town, to provide passing ships with food, water and hospitalization for sick sailors.

1652-1654:1st Anglo-Dutch War

1652-8: Patriarch Nikon of Moscow revises liturgical books to bring them into conformity with the Greek Orthodox liturgy. Opponents of this reform were excommunicated from the Russian Orthodox Church and become known as Old Believers, which are now divided into several sects. These excommunications were rescinded in 1971.
    Cyril III          1652


Cromwell made Lord Protector     Joannicius II          1653



    Cyril III          1654


England divided into 12 military districts by Cromwell; seizes Jamaica from Spain

1655-60: First Northern War against Sweden 1658: Cromwell dies, son Richard resigns, Puritan government collapses
236 Alexander VII   Joannicius II          1655


War with Spain (until 1659)     Parthenius III          1656


      Gabriel II          1657


Oliver Cromwell dies; succeeded as Lord Protector by son Richard; Battle of the Dunes England and France defeat Spain; England gains Dunkirk         Richard Cromwell      1658


Richard Cromwell forced to resign by the army; "Rump" Parliament restored                1659


Parliament asks for Charles II to become King, English Monarchy restored in 1661         House of Stuart, Restored
Charles II


Louis XIV takes over French government                1661


Act of Uniformity passed in England     Dionysius III          1662


Turks invade Hungary                1663



1664-65 Plague closes Cambridge. Newton goes to country, discovers laws of motion and gravity, explains orbits, invents calculus, makes discoveries in optics.

1664-1667: English seize New Amsterdam from the Dutch and rename it New York, 2nd Anglo-Dutch War


Great Plague in London

the Greek Jewish kabbalist Shabbatai Zvi is hailed as the messiah but then accepts to convert to Islam to save his life
    Parthenius IV          1665


Great Fire in London                1666


1667-68: Louis XIV of France makes war against Spain 237 Clement IX   Clement          1667


Triple Alliance of England Netherlands and Sweden against France     Methodius III          1668


  238 Clement X              1670


      Parthenius IV          1671


1672-78: 3rd Anglo-Dutch War                1672


Moliere dies.     Gerasimus II          1673


Treaty of Westminster between England and the Netherlands                1674



    Parthenius IV          1675


  239 Innocent XI   Dionysus IV Muselimes          1676


Act of Habeas Corpus passed forbidding imprisonment without trial; Parliament's Bill of Exclusion against the Roman Catholic Duke of York blocked by Charles II; Parliament dismissed; Charles II rejects petitions calling for a new Parliament; petitioners become known as Whigs; their opponents (royalists) known as Tories     Athanasius IV          1679


Edmond Halley, with Newton's aid, has plotted orbits of comets. He shows that comet of 1682 is same as that of 1531 and 1607, predicts return in 1758.

Peter the Great becomes Tsar of Russia
    Dionysus IV Muselimes          1682


1683-1750: British dominate Portugese trade 1685: Edict of Nantes revoked in France                1683


      Parthenius IV          1684


      James   James II      1685


German League of Augsburg formed against France     Dionysus IV Muselimes          1686


Newton publishes Principia (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) containing laws of motion and gravitation and explaining motions in the sky and on earth with the same laws.     James          1687


English Parliament invites William of Orange to replace James II in fear of restoration of Catholicism     Callinicus II          1688



1689-97: War of the League of Augsburg against France

Convention Parliament issues Bill of Rights; establishes a constitutional monarchy in Britain; bars Roman Catholics from the throne; William III and Mary II become joint monarchs of England and Scotland (to1694 Toleration Act grants freedom of worship to dissenters in England; Grand Alliance of the League of Augsburg England and the Netherlands.
240 Alexander VIII   Callinicus II   House of Orange and Stuart
William III, Mary II


English set up trading post at Calcutta

William III (of Orange) defeats Irish rebels and former King James II


  241 Innocent XII              1691


Languedoc Canal connects the Mediterranean with the Bay of Biscay. 240 miles long, with 100 locks, 3 major aqueducts, 1 tunnel, and a summit reservoir. The largest canal project between Roman times and the nineteenth century.                1692


      Dionysus IV Muselimes          1693


      Callinicus II          1694


Great Northern War: Saxony, Poland, Brandenburg-Prussia, Hannover, Denmark, and Russia joins forces against Sweden for the second time, Sweden loses massive amounts of land in Germany, Poland and the Baltic 242 Clement XI              1700


1702-14: War of the Spanish succession, last of Louis XIV's Wars     Gabriel III   House of Stuart


England, Scotland and Wales joined by the Act of Union, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain     Neophytus V          1707


Russia defeats Sweden     Athanasius V          1709



Peter the Great is defeated by Turks at Stanilesti.
    Cyril IV          1711


Thomas Newcomen builds first commercially successful steam engine. Able to keep deep coal mines clear of water. First significant power source other than wind and water.

the first public synagogue in inaugurated in Berlin


      Cyprianus I          1713


Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish succession, and reshapes the map of Europe. Spain loses half of Italy and the Spanish Netherlands to Austria     Cosmas III   House of Brunswick, Hanover Line
George I


            Louis XV    1715


      Jeremias III          1716


Friendship treaty between France and Russia                1717


  243 Innocent XIII       Sir Robert Walpole
Prime Minister,


  244 Benedict XIII              1724


      Paisius II          1726



Newton dies

Spanish lay siege to Gibraltar
        George II      1727


  245 Clement XII              1730


      Jeremias III          1732


      Serapheim I          1733


Spanish Inquisition ends     Neophytus VI          1734


Israel Baal Shem Tov founds the Jewish Hasidism (sincere devotion over Talmudic erudition appreciation of God in nature)                1736


Spain and England declare war                1739


Frederick II becomes King of Prussia

King Frederick the Great of Prussia invades Austrian Silesia supported by Bavaria, Saxony and Spain

Maria Theresa ascends the throne of Austria
246 Benedict XIV   Paisius II          1740


          Earl of Wilmington
Prime Minister,


      Neophytus VI   Henry Pelham
Prime Minister,



    Paisius II          1744


Scots defeated by the English                1746


      Cyril V          1748


      Cyril V          1752


          Duke of Newcastle
Prime Minister,


1756-63: Seven Years' War: Russia, Austria, and France against most other countries in Europe (mainly Britain and Prussia)         Duke of Devonshire
Prime Minister,


British Empire in India     Callinicus III   Duke of Newcastle
Prime Minister,


  247 Clement XIII              1758


British capture Quebec from the French                1759


          George III      1760



    Joannicius III          1761


Catherine I becomes Czarina of Russia         Earl of Bute
Prime Minister,


      Samuel I Chatzeres   George Grenville
Prime Minister,


Steam Engine invented         Marquess of Rockingham
Prime Minister,


          Duke of Grafton
Prime Minister,


Jews are massacred during riots in Russia-occupied Poland     Meletius II          1768


  248 Clement XIV   Theodosius II          1769


          Lord North
Prime Minister,


The Russians reach the Dniester for the first time in history.

First Partition of Poland by Austria, Russia and Prussia


the Book of Henoch is rediscovered in Abyssinia     Samuel I Chatzeres          1773



    Sophoronius II     Louis XVI    1774


Watt's first efficient steam engine, much more efficient than the Newcomen.

The Austrians buy a part of Moldova (Bucovina) rom Turkey.
249 Pius VI              1775


American Revolution
July 4, 1776


First steam powered mills. Crompton's "mule" combines Hargreaves' and Arkwright's machines, fully automating the weaving process.                1779


      Gabriel IV          1780


          Marquess of Rockingham
Prime Minister,


          Duke of Portland
Prime Minister,


Russia amnnexes Crimea                1784


      Procopius I          1785


British-French trade agreement                1786



French Parlement (Spelled this way in French) lists greivances against Louis XVI


French Revolution
July 14, 1789

George Washington is sworn in as the First President of the United States

Mutiny on the HMS Bounty on its voyage back to England from Tahiti
    Neophytus VII          1789


Russia gains the Black Sea from the Turks                1791


French monarchy abolished, Britain declares war on France

Second Partition of Poland
          First Republic
National Convention


The War of the First Coalition (1793-97)

The new pro-revolutionary France fought an alliance of Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, and the Kingdom of Sardinia between 1793 and 1797. Great Britain led the alliance that's main purpose was to reestablish the monarchy in France. In 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte, a French General, led the French in northern Italy against the Austrians. Napoleon made major victories against the Austrians and in 1798 he led the French against Egypt as a prelude to invading British India. But Napoleon's campaign in Egypt was unsuccessful and he returned to France in 1799. Here, he overthrew the Directory and established the Consulate in which Napoleon was made the leader of France as the First Consul.


      Gerasimus III          1794


Third Partition of Poland, Polish indepenence shattered           Directory (Directors)
Paul François Jean Nicolas de Barras
Jean-François Reubell
Louis Marie La Revellíere-Lépeaux
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot
Etienne Le Tourneur
François Marquis de Barthélemy
Philippe Antoine Merlin de Douai
François de Neufchâteau
Jean Baptiste Comte de Treilhard
Emmanuel Joseph Comte de Sieyés
Roger Comte de Ducos
Jean François Auguste Moulins
Louis Gohier


Napoleon defeats Austrians                1796


      Gregory V          1797


United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland established with one parliament and one monarch

Napoleon conquers Egypt and Rome
Island of Malta surrenders to Napoleon

The War of the Second Coalition (1798-1802)
Napoleon's success against Austria in Italy had proven France's position in Europe. But while Napoleon was commanding the French in Egypt, a new alliance was formed called the Second Coalition. The alliance consisted of Russia, Great Britain, Austria, the Kingdom of Naples, Portugal, and the Ottoman Empire. Most of the war occurred in northern Italy and Switzerland. The Austrians and Russians, though, were very successful in Italy at the battles of Magnano (April 5, 1799), Cassano (April 27), Trebbia (June 19), and Novi (August 15). The coalition also occupied Milan and Turin, which destroyed previous French gains in the area. But the French were better off in Switzerland. After being defeated at Zurich (June 7) by the Austrians, the French defeated the Russians and on October 22 withdrew from the Second Coalition due to alleged lack of cooperation by the Austrians. When Napoleon returned to France and became the First Consul, he attempted to make peace with the allies. But they refused, and Napoleon planned a series of moves against the Austrians and its German allies for the spring of 1800. On June 14, a French force of 40,000 men under Napoleon defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Marengo. At the same time, another French force crossed the Rhine and captured Munich. On December 3, this force defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Hohenlinden and advanced towards the city of Linz, in Austria. On February 9, 1801, the French forced the Austrians to capitulate at the treaty of Luneville. The Germans ceded the left bank of the Rhine and recognized the French-influenced republics in northern Italy. The treaty also marked the end of the Second Coalition. On March 27, 1802, the British signed the Treaty of Amiens with France, thus completely ending the Second Coalition. But the treaty was short lasting and in 1803, France and Britain were again at war. The reason was the island of Malta. The French, assured by the Treaty of Amiens, were supposed to have had Malta returned to them. The British did not surrender the island, and war broke out again. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States and he was no longer able to make a vast colonial empire that he desired. Austria, Russia and Sweden joined Britain in 1805 and Spain joined France.
    Neophytus VII          1798



Napoleon takes over the French government as First Consul

Roman Republic
1st Consul:
1799 - 1804
Napoleon Bonaparte
2nd Consul:
1799 Emmanuel Joseph Comte de Sieyés,
1799 - 1804 Jean-Jacques Régis Cambacérès
3rd Consul:
1799 - 1799 Pierre-Roger Ducos
1799 - 1804 Charles François Lebrun


  250 Pius VII              1800


Austria makes a temporary peace with France

Vatican Concordat with Napoleon
    Callinicus IV   Henry Addington
Prime Minister,


US purchases Louisiana from France for $15 million

The War of the Third Coalition (1803-05)
Napoleon quickly moved against the Second Coalition. He exerted pressure since 1798 on Britain by keeping an army at Boulogne on the English Channel, preparing for an invasion of England. But after the formation of the new coalition against France, he moved the large force at Boulogne to meet the Austrians under Ferdinand III, who had invaded Bavaria. Some German states allied themselves with France such as Bavaria and Wurttemburg. Napoleon defeated Austria at Ulm and then moved on to capture Vienna. Alexander I sent an army to help the Austrians, but Napoleon crushed the combined Austro-Russian army at the Battle of Austerlitz also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors. Austria again capitulated on December 26, 1805 at the Treat of Pressburg. By the terms of this treaty, Austria gave France more territory in northern Italy, gave Bavaria more territory in Austria itself and recognized Wurttemburg and Baden as kingdoms. He also stripped Ferdinand of the title of Holy Roman Emperor, ending the empire.

The Confederation of the Rhine
Napoleon ended the Holy Roman Empire in 1805, and Austria attempted to regain it by forming the Austrian Empire. But France took the initiative and established the Confederation of the Rhine, which eventually consisted of all the German states except for Austria, Prussia, Brunswick and Hessen. Napoleon had already begun to take control of other places though. Joseph Bonaparte became King of Naples in 1806. Louis Bonaparte became King of Holland (former Batavian republic) that same year, and on June 12 he formed the Confederation of the Rhine. His success in uniting the continent was checked, or at least offset when the British, under Nelson, defeated the French and Spanish combined fleets at Trafalgar on October 21, 1805. This victory made Britain the master of the seas throughout the rest of the war. In 1806, since Napoleon could not defeat the British at sea, he initiated economic warfare. He formed the Continental System, which did not allow any continental ports to open their doors to British trade. Britain countered this by making the Orders of Council, which forbade any neutral ship from trading in any ports between ports of nations obeying Napoleon. British control over the sea troubled the Continental System and eventually made it fail


Haiti declares independence, others follow to breakdown the French colonial system         William Pitt the Younger
Prime Minister,
First Empire
Napoleon I


Napoleon's French army wins the the battle of Austerlitz



Holy Roman Empire ends with the abdictation of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand

The War of the Fourth Coalition (1806-08)
Napoleon continued his influence in Europe before the British began to exploit its control over the seas. Prussia in 1806, concerned about Napoleon's power mainly in Germany, joined a new fourth coalition composed of Great Britain, Russia and Sweden. The Prussians were severely defeated at Jena on October 14, 1806 and Napoleon captured Berlin. He then moved on to defeat the Russians at Friedland and forced Alexander I to make peace. By the Treaty of Tilsit, Russia lost Poland to France and became Napoleon's ally, and Prussia was reduced to a third-rate power due to half of its territory being taken away. Napoleon then moved against Sweden with the support of Russia and Denmark. Sweden was defeated and King Gustav IV Adolph was forced to abdicate in favour of his uncle, Charles XIII. The heir to Sweden after him would be one of Napoleon's Marshals, General Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, who became King of Sweden in 1818.
By 1808, Napoleon was master of all of Europe except for Russia and Great Britain. Nationalistic feelings in some of Napoleon's territories began to weaken Napoleon's power. This coupled with Britain's persistence in opposition to France. The first nationalistic uprisings were in Spain in 1808. After dethroning Charles IV, Napoleon but his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne. The Spanish revolted and drove Joseph out of Madrid. The Peninsular War in Spain had thus begun. The British under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, aided the Spaniards in their violent struggle. This struggle severely handicapped Napoleon in his later conflicts in further Eastern Europe. The first enemy after domination of Europe by Napoleon was Austria. Now Austria joined the Fifth Coalition with Great Britain in 1809. Napoleon again defeated Austria at Wagram in July, and forced them to sign the Treaty of Vienna, and Austria lost territory such as Salzburg, Galicia and large portions of its territory in southern Europe. Napoleon then married the daughter of Francis II of Austria in hope of keeping Austria out of newer coalitions.
    Gregory V   Lord Grenville
Prime Minister,


Robert Fulton's Clermont first successful steamboat.

Portugese government temporarily moves to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil
        Duke of Portland
Prime Minister,


France extends to Rome and Spain, British support Spanish guerillas     Callinicus IV          1808


Annexation by France,Napoleon excommunicated, Pope arrested
    Jeremias IV   Spencer Perceval
Prime Minister,



Napoleon leads unsuccessful invasion of Russia
Napoleon's Army retreats from Russia

The Downfall of Napoleon
In 1812, Napoleon's turning point in his career had come. War again broke out between France and Russia because Alexander refused to accept the Continental System. This is where the "Spanish Ulcer" became a serious problem. With one army occupied in Spain, he went to Russia with 500,000 men. He defeated the Russians at Borodino and took Moscow on September 14, 1812. But the Russians had burned the city making it impossible for Napoleon's forces to take shelter in the cold upcoming winter. The French retreated to Germany, on the way losing most of their men. Russia then joined the Fifth Coalition, consisting of Great Britain, Prussia, and Sweden. Prussia, pressured by patriotism in its country due to reforms, opened the War of Liberation against Napoleon. Napoleon then defeated the Prussians at Lutzen and Bautzen. He then won his last major victory at the Battle of Dresden on August 27, 1813 where 100,000 French won against a combined force of Prussian, Austrian, and Russian forces numbering 150,000. But the following October, the Battle of Leipzig forced Napoleon to retreat across the Rhine, thus freeing Germany. The next year, in 1814, the Austrians, Russians, and Prussians invaded northern France. In March 1814, they took Paris. Napoleon was forced to abdicate and he went into exile at Elba.

The Congress of Vienna
Napoleon escaped Elba in March 1815 and initiated the Hundred Days'. He made a campaign into Belgium and on June 18, 1815, Napoleon was again defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and was forced to abdicate for the last time to Saint Helena until his death in 1821. The Congress of Vienna took place between September 1814 to June 1815. Representatives from every European country except Turkey attended the Congress. The most prominent were Russia, Austria, Great Britain, and Prussia. First, the Congress deprived France of all territory conquered by Napoleon after the Revolution. It united the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands under the House of Orange and united Norway and Sweden under Charles XIV John of Sweden. It also recognized the independence of Switzerland. Russia received a New Kingdom of Poland with Alexander as King; Prussia received West Prussia, Posen, half of Saxony, northern Saxony, and other provinces; Hannover became a Kingdom and received more territory; Austria regained almost all of its territory lost to Napoleon and was compensated for its loss of the Netherlands by more territory in Italy. The German Confederation was formed after the Frankfurt Assembly under the "presidency" of Austria. This united almost 40 sovereign states in Germany, including Prussia. The Congress almost destroyed the Slave Trade, and kept Europe at peace for almost 40 years.

The Russians annex the Easter part of Moldova (Basarabia).
        Earl of Liverpool
Prime Minister,


      Cyril VI          1813


French defeated by the allies (Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Sweden and Portugal)

US and Britain sign peace treaty at Ghent, Belgium
          Louis XVIII


Napoleon is defeated by Wellington at Waterloo

The restorations of 1815 returned the Papal Italian territories, until the period of the unificaiton of Italy, 1859-1870.
          Napoleon I
(2nd time)


      Gregory V          1818


          George IV      1820


Greek Revolution
March 25, 1821-1829
    Eugenius II          1821


      Anthimus III          1822


  251 Leo XII              1823


Charles X of France fails in an attempt to restore absolute Monarchy in France     Chrysanthos I     Charles X    1824



    Agathangelos I          1826


          George Canning
Prime Minister,


Russia declares war on Turkeyin aid of the Greek Revolution, Greece also aided by Britain and France         Duke of Wellington
Prime Minister,


Turks recognize Greek independence

Polish revolt against Russia fails
252 Pius VIII              1829


Manchester-Liverpool railway begins first regular commercial rail service.

French invade Algeria
    Constantios I   Earl Grey
Prime Minister,
Louis Philippe


Faraday discovers electro-magnetic current, making possible generators and electric engines.

Belgium seperates from the Netherlands
253 Gregory XVI              1831


Slavery abolished in the British Empire

The Church of Greece declares its autonomy from the Patriarchate at Constantinople, as an "autocephalic" church.


Charles Babbage develops his analytic engine--the forerunner of the computer.

Fox Talbot produces photographs.

Spanish Inquisition officially ends
    Constantios II   Viscount Melbourne
Prime Minister,


      Gregory VI   Viscount Melbourne
Prime Minister,


Victoria becomes Queen of Great Britain

Morse develops the telegraph and Morse Code.

Great Western-: First ocean-going steamship.
        Victoria      1837



Daguerre perfects the Daguerrotype.


1839-1842: First Opium War between Britain and China over drug importation

Fox Talbot introduces photographic paper.


Lower and Upper Canada united     Anthimus IV          1840


      Anthimus V   Sir Robert Peel
Prime Minister,


      Germanus IV          1842


Great Britain: First large, iron, screw-propelled steamship.                1843


Commercial use of Morse's telegraph (Baltimore to Washington).

Chinese ports open to US ships


      Meletius III          1845


1846-1848: US at war with Mexico

Pneumatic tire patented
254 Pius IX       Lord Russell
Prime Minister,


Second Republic founded in France by Napoleon III     Anthimus IV     Second Republic
Louis Eugéne Cavaignac
Louis Napoleon
(later Napoleon III)



Monier develops reinforced concrete.


Singer invents first practical sewing machine.                1851


Napoleon III becomes Emperor of France     Germanus IV   Earl of Derby
Prime Minister,
Second Empire
(Louis) Napoleon III


1853-56: Crimean War begins as Turkey declares war on Russia     Anthimus VI          1853


Britain and France join the Turks against Russia                1854


      Cyril VII   Viscount Palmerston
Prime Minister,


Russia defeated by British, French and Turks                1856


Pasteur experiments with fermentation.

Sepoy rebellion in India


First Trans-Atlantic Cable completed

Cathode rays discovered.
        Earl of Derby
Prime Minister,


1859-1870. The political independence of the Papacy formally ended.

Loss of Romagna.
        Viscount Palmerston
Prime Minister,



American Civil War

Loss of the Marches & Umbria.
    Joachim II          1860


US Civil War begins

Independant Kingdom of Italy proclaimed


Prussia grows under Otto von Bismarck                1862


Poland revolts against Russia

French capture Mexico City
    Sophronios III          1863


Napoleon III and Bismarck meet at Biarritz, France         Lord Russell
Prime Minister,


Austria defeated by Prussia and Italy

Dominion of Canada founded
        Earl of Derby
Prime Minister,


Karl Marx writes and publishes the Capital

Alfred Nobel produces dynamite, the first high explosive which can be safely handled.

Austria-Hungary dual-monarchy established


Revolution in Spain         Benjamin Disraeli
Prime Minister,


Suez Canal opened                1869


1870-71: Franco-Prussian War, French surrendurs Alsace-Lorraine to the new German Empire(former Prussia)           Third Republic (presidents)
Louis Jules Trochu (provisional)



Prussian dominated German Empire founded with Bismarck as Chancellor
    Anthimus VI     Adolphe Thiers    1871


Christopher Sholes invents the Remington typewriter.

Clerk Maxwell states the laws of electro-magnetic radiation

Economic crisis in Europe
    Joachim II     Patrice de MacMahon    1873


          Benjamin Disraeli
Prime Minister,


Bell invents the telephone.                1876


1877-1878: Russo-Turkish War: Turkish power in Europe broken after the Congress of Berlin

Edison invents the phonograph.


Pius IX dies after 32 years of pontificate (the longest ever) 255 Leo XIII   Joachim III          1878


Edison invents the incandescent lamp.

Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Wurtemburg, Germany. In 1895, Einstein attempted to enroll at Eidgenossische Technishe Hockshule (ETH), a technical university in Zurich, to study Electrical Engineering, but failed the entrance examination. In 1896, he renounced his German citizenship and did not officially become even a prospective citizen of another country until 1899 when he applied for citizenship in Switzerland. Einstein eventually attended ETH became a teacher in 1900.

In 1905, Einstein received his doctorate from ETH for a discovery in the determination of molecular dimensions. In this year, he also wrote three papers about his discoveries in quantum theory and relativity. In 1921, Einstein received a Nobel Prize for his 1905 work on photoelectric effects.

For his accomplishments, Einstein began receiving international attention. He returned to Germany in 1914 to accept a research position at the Prussian Academy of Sciences and a chair position at the University of Berlin. He also began traveling to the United States and on his third visit in 1932, he was offered and accepted a job at Princeton University. He became a US citizen in 1940.

In 1939, at the urging of Dr. Leo Szilard, Einstein wrote to President Roosevelt warning of a new discovery of a "nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium." Einstein forewarned President Roosevelt that the discovery of such a reaction could lead to the construction of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type." Einstein also mentioned that Dr. Leo Szilard was working on this and urged the US to find this reaction before Germany. It was Einstein's letter that led President Roosevelt to funding uranium research and later to the Manhattan Project.

Einstein died on April 18, 1955 of heart failure. On July 9, 1955, he and Bertrand Russell issued a Manifesto. The Russell-Einstein Manifesto warned of the peril of nuclear weapons and the dangers of continuing an arms race and called upon scientists to discuss a resolution.
          Jules Grévy    1879


          W E Gladstone
Prime Minister,


May 10 1881 - Proclamation of the Kingdom of Romania.

a wave of anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia causes mass migrations of Jews (2.5 million Jews settle in the United States thousands settle in Palestine)


Britain conquers Egypt

Germany, Austria and Italy forms the Triple Alliance in fear of Russian conquests, it will eventually lead to World War I



First skyscraper (ten stories) in Chicago.

The Brooklyn Bridge opens. This large suspension bridge, built by the Roeblings (father and son), is a triumph of engineering.


Maxim invents the machine gun, making possible mass slaughter and beginning the mechanization of warfare.     Joachim IV          1884


Benz develops first automobile to run on internal- combustion engine.         Marquess of Salisbury
Prime Minister,


Statue of Liberty dedicated         W E Gladstone
Prime Minister,


      Dionysios V     Sadi Carnot    1887


Hertz produces radio waves.                1888


Eiffel Tower.

Second (Socialist) International formed in Paris


      Neophytos VIII          1891


Rudolf Diesel invents his namesake.         W E Gladstone
Prime Minister,


          Earl of Rosebery
Prime Minister,
Jean Casimir-Périer    1894



Lumiere brothers develop Cinematograph.

Roentgen discovers X-rays.
    Anthimus VII   Marquess of Salisbury
Prime Minister,
Félix Faure    1895


Marconi patents wireless telegraph.                1896


Joseph Thomson discovers particles smaller than atoms.

Jews of Palestine led by Theodor Herzl at Basel (Switzerland) call for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine (first Zionist Congress
    Constantine V          1897


Spanish-American War

U.S. President McKinley is shot, succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt


Aspirin invented.           Emile Loubet    1899


First Zeppelin built                1900


Marconi transmits first trans-Atlantic radio message (from Cape Cod).

Queen Victoria dies
    Joachim III   House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Edward VII


          Arthur James Balfour
Prime Minister,


Wright brothers make first powered flight. Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. 256 St. Pius X              1903


Russo-Japanese War, competition for Korea and Manchuria: Japanese defeat Russians, Europe startled

General strikes and riots in Russia, first workers' soviet set up in St.Petersburg



Albert Einstein (1879-1955)publishes a paper on his Theory of Relativity

Norway becomes independent from Sweden
        Sir H Campbell-Bannerman
Prime Minister,


            Armand Fallières    1906


Second Hague Peace Conference with 46 nations adopts 10 conventions on rules of war                1907


Henry Ford mass-produces the Model T.

Inquisition becomes Holy Office
        H H Asquith
Prime Minister,


Tel Aviv is founded as a Hebrew speaking Jewish city                1909


          House of Windsor
George V


Italian-Turkish War, first use of aircraft as an offensive weapon

General strikes and riots in Russia, first workers' soviet set up in St.Petersburg

Chinese Republic overthrows Manchu dynasty


April 12: Titanic sinks on maiden voyage

1912-13: Balkan Wars: Turks defeated twice by Balkan alliances, forced to give up more land


      Germanus V     Raymond Poincaré    1913


World War I begins:
The Great War
257 Benedict XV              1914



        H H Asquith
Prime Minister,


          David Lloyd George
Prime Minister,


Soviet Revolution

British officer T. E. Lawrence plays instrumental role in uniting bedwin tribes of Arabia in guerilla warfare against the Turkish army, starting with a decisive victory against the Red Sea port of Akaba. Turkey was aligned with germany durng World War I.
T. E. Lawrence becomes known as Lawrence of Arabia.

Three shepherd children see the Virgin Mary in Fatima Portugal


      [Vacant,]          1918


World War I ends:
Peace Treaty signed by German delegates and Allies in Versailles.

US, British and French troops leave Russia

League of Nations formed


First League of Nations meeting in Geneva, Switzerland

Heyday of the silent movies
          Paul Deschanel
Alexandre Millerand


US Congress formally ends WWI

German inflation begins

Irish Free State formed
    Meletius IV Metaxakis          1921


USSR formed by the Bolsheviks

Mussolini forms fascist government in Italy
258 Pius XI       Andrew Bonar Law
Prime Minister,


French and Belgian troops take the Ruhr to force reparation payments     Gregory VII   Stanley Baldwin
Prime Minister,


Death of Lenin: Stalin wins power struggle in Russia     Constantine VI   Ramsay MacDonald
Prime Minister,
Gaston Doumergue    1924



    Basil III          1925


General Strike in Britain

Socialist riot in Vienna


Charles Lindburgh flies solo across the Atlantic from Long Island to Le Bourget, paris on the single-engine Spirit of St Louis

German economy collapses


Kellogg-Briand Pact, outlawing war, signed by 65 nations

World economic crisis


First phase of the Great Depression

Concordat with Mussolini, Independence of Vatican City
    Photius II   Ramsey MacDonald
Prime Minister,


Britain, US, France, Japan, and Italy sign the naval disarmament treaty

Nazi's first appear German elections


King Alfonso XIII overthrown, Spain becomes a republic

Mukden Incident in Japanese occupied Manchuria
        Ramsey MacDonald
Prime Minister,
national coalition
Paul Doumer    1931


Iraq becomes independent

Nazi's lead German elections
          Albert Lebrun    1932


Hitler made German Chancellor - obtains dictatorial powers

First concentration camps opened by the Nazis

Japan and Germany withdraw from the League of Nations


Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss assassinated by the Nazis                1934



Mussolini invades Ethiopia
        Stanley Baldwin
Prime Minister,
national coalition


Germans occupy the Rhine

Spanish civil war begins

War between China and Japan begins

Japan and Germany sign the Anti-Cominterim treaty, Italy joins the Axis in 1937
    Benjamin I   Edward VIII      1936


Hitler continues to increase German military power         Neville Chamberlain
Prime Minister,
national coalition


Austria occupied by Nazis

Munich Pact allows Nazis to take Czechslovakia


World War II begins
Poland, France invaded
Battle of Britain

Two definitive motion pictures are released:
Citizen Kane, and
Gone With The Wind
259 Pius XII              1939


October 28: Greece invaded by Mussolini's Italian army. Italians are pushed back through Albania. Hitler opens a second front against Greece in March 1941 in aid of Mussolini. Greek army overrun at the Rhodopi mountains fortifications, border with Bulgaria, in April, allowed to leave fortifications without surrendering their arms.         Sir Winston Churchill
Prime Minister,
Vichy Government
(Chief of State)
Henri Philippe Petain


Greece overrun, Russia invaded

The Empire of Japan attacks the U.S. Fleet at Pearl Harbour without having delivered a Declaration of War. The declaration of War came one hour after the 8 AM attack because the Japanese Embassy in Washington DC took longer than expected to translate the message from the Japanese government to the government of the United States. After the success of the devastating attack admiral Yamamoto said ³I fear all we have succeeded in doing is awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with resolve².

Hitler envisions a "final solution" for the Jews and extermination camps are set up ("Holocaust") that will eliminate six million Jews


The U.S. Lands forces in North Africa, German forces are driven to Italy

Manhattan project lead by Dr Robert Openheimer (1904 - 1967) to create the first atom bomb. Albert Einstein, seen here with Oppenheimer, has said he does not know about the Third World War, but the Fourh will be fought with sticks and stones.


Italy invaded by allied forces in Sicilly, then at Angio                1943


The Allies invade Normandy           Provisional Government
Charles de Gaulle



End of World War II
Germany surrenders
The U.S. drops first nuclear devices on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Nuclear Age begins

a library of early Christian texts is discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt
        Clement Attlee
Prime Minister,


UN established by leading world nations

Jan 10: First meeting of the UN General Assembly in London

April: League of Nations dissolved

June: Italy abolishes monarchy

Jan 1: UK nationalizes its coal mines

Feb 10: Peace treaties for Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Finland signed in Paris

Feb 23-25: Burma and Ceylon granted independence from Britain

April 30: Israel proclaimed a nation

May 14: Berlin airlift beginsMay 14: Berlin airlift beginsMay 14: Berlin airlift begins

June 28: Republic of Korea founded by the UN
1946-1949: Civil war in Greece between royalists backed by the West and Communist guerila forces backed by the Soviet block.
    Maximus V     Félix Gouin
Georges Bidault
Leon Blum


October 14: Chuck Yeager breaks the Sound Barrier in the X1 experimental plane named Glamorous Glynnis, after his wife.

the Dead Sea Scrolls are discovered near Qumran in caves on the hills by the northwestern shores of the Dead Sea.
          Fourth Republic
Vincent Auriol


At midnight on May 14, 1948, the Provisional Government of Israel proclaimed the new State of Israel. On that same date the United States, in the person of President Truman, recognized the provisional Jewish government as de facto authority of the new Jewish state (de jure recognition was extended on January 31). The U.S. delegates to the U.N. and top ranking State Department officials were angered that Truman released his recognition statement to the press without notifying them first. On May 15, 1948, the Arab states issued their response statement and Arab armies invaded Israel and the first Arab-Israeli war began.

Mahatma Gandhi Assasinated

the Jewish state of Israel is founded in Palestine
    Athenagoras          1948


Jan 7: Cease-fire in Palestine

Jan 31: Truman orders development of the hydrogen bomb

Feb 24: Israel signs armistice with Egypt

April 4: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) signed by 12 nations to counter Soviet aggression

June 25: Start of the Korean War (See Korean War)

Sept 21: German Federal Republic (West Germany) established

Sept 23: Soviets test atomic bomb

Oct 1: Communist Peoples' Republic of China formally proclaimed by Mao Zedong


Korean War

Vietnam War


March 19: Six European nations agree on Schuman plan for a Steel and Coal pool, it will eventually lead to the European Union

Sept 8: Japanese peace treaty signed by 49 nations
        Sir Winston Churchill
Prime Minister,


Feb 6: George VI dies, Elizabeth II named Queen of England

February: NATO approves the European army

November: AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) announces satisfactory hydrogen weapons testing in the US

Ernest hemingway publishes The Old Man and the Sea
wins Pulitzer Prize for Fiction 1953
        Elizabeth II      1952


Jan 20:General Dwight D. Eisenhower is inaugurated as US President

Feb 10: European Coal and Steel Plan goes into effect

March 5: Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin dies

March 6: Malenkov becomes the Soviet Premier

June 17: East Berliners rebel against Communism but are suppressed by Soviet forces

June 18: Egypt becomes a republic ruled by a military junta

July 27: Korean armistice signed

Aug 20: Moscow announces the explosion of the Hydrogen bomb


Jan 21 Nautilus, the First nuclear-powered submarine launched by the U.S           René Coty    1954



        Sir Anthony Eden
Prime Minister,


Heyday of the I Love Lucy popular TV show                1956


          Harold Macmillan
Prime Minister,


1958-1963 The Mercury Program

Fidel Castro assumes power in Cuba during the last hours of 1958, nistalls communist government and aligns with Moscow and the U.S.S.R. Castro will survive 10 U.S. Presidencies.
260 John XXIII              1958


Sputnik, first artificial satelite circles the Earth           Fifth Republic
Charles de Gaulle


1960-1963: U.S. military advisers in South Vietnam rise from 900 to 15,000                1960


Failed invasion of Cuba by the U.S. at the Bay of Pigs

April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin is the first person to orbit the Earth


1962-1966 The Gemini Program

Cuba missile crisis stand-off between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R.


John F. Kennedy assasinated

Presiden Lyndon B. Johnson increases U.S. commitment in Vietnam
261 Paul VI       Sir Alec Douglas-Home
Prime Minister,


          Harold Wilson
Prime Minister,



Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople mutually nullify the excommunications of 1054.


Vatican abolishes Index of Forbidden Books                1966


The Seven-Day War between Israel, Egypt and Syria ends with Israeli victory.

April 21: U.S.-backed junta of 3 Colonels overthrows Greek government and takes power in Greece
November: King Constantine of Greece flees and eventually settles in London. Greek monarchy is served by a military viceroy appointed by the ruling junta and is eventually abolished through a referrendum after the fall of the junta and restoration of democracy in 1974

1967-1972 The Apollo Program (Lunar)

The Beatles record Seargent Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band


Robert F. Kennedy assasinated
Martin Luther King assasinated

Chicago riots

Summer of Love

Student uprising in Paris

Richard Nixon is elected President of the U.S.


First Men on the Moon:
Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin land their lunar vehicle ³Eagle² at the Sea of tranquility.
          Georges Pompidou    1969


Commercial services begin for the Boeing 747-100, the world's largest passenger jet airliner.         Edward Heath
Prime Minister,


1971-1991 Salyut Space Stations                1971


The Watergate scandal slowly errupts in the pages of The Washington Post

Israeli athetes are assasinated during the Olympic games at Munich
    Demetrius          1972


November 17: Student uprising in the Polytechnic at Athens is crushed by the military Junta. A transfer of power occurs within the ranks of the junta which leads to the unsuccessful coup in Cyprus in July 1974.

1973-1974 Skylab


Nixon resigns U.S. Presidency as a result of the Watergate scandal

Turkey invades Cyprus; divides the island into Greek and Turkish sectors, supports Turkish Cypriot State which is not recognised by any other nations.

Greek Junta falls after unsuccessful coup in Cyprus which precipitated the Turkish invasion. Greek statesman Konstantin Karamanlis returns to Athens from self-exile in Paris to assume the leadership of transition into democracy. Karamanlis is given the personal jet of the French President to fly to Athens. France acts as protector of the transitional period and helps avert a war between Greece and Turkey when the French fleet positions itself between the Turkish fleet and Greek islands: France declares that any shots fired by any nation over the position of the French fleet will be considered an act of war against France. The transitional period ends with the restoration of Democracy in Greece and the occupation of the northern part of Cyprus by the Turkish-backed Turkish Cyriot government.
        Harold Wilson
Prime Minister,
Valery Giscard d'Estaing    1974



End of War in Vietnam

12:12pm (EDT) July 17, 1974. Apollo-Soyuz rendezvous in space

Both craft were launched on July 15, 1975. The crews exchanged commemorative flags and other gifts on live television.


Viking 1 lands on Mars on June the 20th 1976         James Callaghan
Prime Minister,


The name "John," shunned for centuries, has now been born by three of the last four Popes. This was all due to the saintliness and magnanimity of John XXIII. John Paul I wished to honor John and his successor, Paul VI, and then John Paul II wished to honor all three of them.
John Paul I's brief reign moved the Cardinals to elect a relatively young and vigorous Pope.
John Paul II has now, indeed, reigned into the new Millennium. He was also the first non-Italian Pope in centuries, and the first Polish Pope ever.
It has been a historic reign indeed, with John Paul playing a large part in the Fall of Communism, but he has lately grown gravely frail and ill.

Apple Computer is born.

John Paul II is the first non-Italian Pope in centuries (and the first Pole ever
262 John Paul I

263 John Paul II


Iranian extremists overrun the U.S. Embassy in Tehran; take American hostages who are released in January 1981

Apple launches the AppleII
        Margaret Thatcher
Prime Minister,


1980-1988: Presidency of Ronald Reagan

"We are what happens to Hydrogen atoms given fifteen billion years of evolution."

Some 3.6 million years ago, in what is now northern Tanzania, a volcano errupted, the resulting cloud of ash covering the surrounding savannahs. In 1979, the paleoanthropologist Mary Leaky found in that ash footprints --the footprints, she believes, of an early humanoid, perhaps an ancestor of all the people on the Earth today. And 380,000 kilometers away, in a flat dry plain that humans have in a moment of optimism called the Sea of Tranquility, there is another footprint, left by the first human to walk another world. We have come far in 3.6 million years, and in 4.6 billion and in 15 billion.

For we are the local embodiment of a Cosmos grown to self-awareness. We have begun to contemplate our origins: starstuff pondering the stars; organized assemblages of ten billion billion billion atoms considering the evolution of atoms; tracing the long journey by which, here at least, consciousness arose. Our loyalties are to the species and the planet.
We speak for Earth. Our obligation to survive is owed not just to ourselves but also to that Cosmos, ancient and vast, from which we spring.
......Carl Sagan

Read Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit!


Space Shuttle program begins

a Bulgarian tries to kill the Pope
          Francois Mitterand    1981


Pioneer 10 on June the 13th 1983 becomes the first manmade object ever to leave the solar system                1983


Apple releases the Macintosh Operating System.
The Personal Computer revolution is launced


the first World Youth Day is held in Rome when Pope John Paul II invites Catholic and Buddhist youth from all over the world to pray with him                1985


The Space Shuttle Challenger explodes 73 seconds after lift off, killing all crew including Teacher in Space Krista McAuliffe

1986-2000: Mir Space Station



Microsoft releases an improved Windows Operating System based on Apple's Macintosh

A court battle ensues between Apple and Microsoft, with Apple alleging that Microsoft stole Macintosh operating system industrial secrets in order to develop their Windows system


"...if we discover a complete theory [unifying relativity and quantum mechanics (ed.)] it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason --for then we would know the mind of God."
......Stephen Hawking
......A Brief History of Time


Fall of the U.S.S.R.

The end of Communism in Eastern Europe allows the Orthodox churches to re-emerge.

The Gulf War
Iraq invades and occupies Kuwait. The U.S. lead a coalition against Iraq. Based in Saudi Arabia the coalition invades Kuwait and drives the Iraqi army back into Iraq. Instiogates no fly zone and ongoing U.N. arms inspections.
        John Major
Prime Minister,


      Bartholomew          1991


New South African Constitution puts end to apartheid                1993


Last episode aired of futuristic, utopian, popular entertainment series: Star Trek, The Next Generation                1994


Microsoft Launches Windows 95, the closest look and feel to the Macintosh system yet.           Jacques Chirac    1995


          Tony Blair
Prime Minister,


20 November, 1998 - The FGB, Zarya, the first component of the International Space Station is launched on a Proton rocket from Kazakhstan.

Microsoft Launches Windows 98, with improved performance and a closer look and feel to the Macintosh system.


The Mir space station burns-up on re-entry

November 2000 - First crew to arrive at the International Space Station

Apple launches Operating System X
Microsoft Launches Windows 2000, to be folowed by Windows XP



Onset of Era of Terrorism:
Destruction of the World Trade Center, New York.
Four Commercial air liners are hijacked; two are crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center one at the Pentagon in Washington DC, and one crashes in a field in Pensylvania after passengers attempt to thwart the hijackers on September 11.

War on Terrorism
The U.S. declares far reaching and long range war against international terrorism, specifying the Al Queda network as responsible for the attack against the World Trade Center and the pentagon

Air attacks against Afganistan, followed by invasion with land forces ousts ruling Taliban party and instigates a western-style democratic government.


War by the United States and the United Kingdom against Iraq:

After an ultimatum by the United States for Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to leave power and go into self exile expires, the United States, with the political and military support of the united Kingdom, and against the wishes of United Nations veto-weilding member states, invade Iraq, oust Saddam Hussein and instigate the process of establishing a western-style democracy on the grounds that the ousted regime possessed Weapons of Mass Destruction and was willing to use them as terrorist or first strike weapons. After exhaustive searches by United States and United Kingdom forces no conclusive proof is found of the present or past existence of Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq.
Deposed Iraqi leader Sadam Hussein is captured December 13.


January: President of the United States, George W. Bush, announces plans to return to the Moon with a semi-permanent colony and venture to Mars with manned missions by the year 2020.                2004





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Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit

Wherever possible there must be independent confirmation of the facts.

Encourage substantive debate on the evidence by knowledgeable proponents of all points of view.

Arguments from authority carry little weight (in science there are no "authorities").

Spin more than one hypothesis - don't simply run with the first idea that caught your fancy.

Try not to get overly attached to a hypothesis just because it's yours.

Quantify, wherever possible.

If there is a chain of argument every link in the chain must work.

Occam's razor - if there are two hypothesis that explain the data equally well choose the simpler.

Ask whether the hypothesis can, at least in principle, be falsified (shown to be false by some unambiguous test). In other words, it is testable? Can others duplicate the experiment and get the same result?

Additional issues are:

Conduct control experiments - especially "double blind" experiments where the person taking measurements is not aware of the test and control subjects.

Check for confounding factors - separate the variables.

Common fallacies of logic and rhetoric

Ad hominem - attacking the arguer and not the argument.

Argument from "authority".

Argument from adverse consequences (putting pressure on the decision maker by pointing out dire consequences of an "unfavorable" decision).

Appeal to ignorance (absence of evidence is not evidence of absence).

Special pleading (typically referring to god's will).

Begging the question (assuming an answer in the way the question is phrased).

Observational selection (counting the hits and forgetting the misses).

Statistics of small numbers (such as drawing conclusions from inadequate sample sizes).

Misunderstanding the nature of statistics (President Eisenhower expressing astonishment and alarm on discovering that fully half of all Americans have below average intelligence!)

Inconsistency (e.g. military expenditures based on worst case scenarios but scientific projections on environmental dangers thriftily ignored because they are not "proved").

Non sequitur - "it does not follow" - the logic falls down.

Post hoc, ergo propter hoc - "it happened after so it was caused by" - confusion of cause and effect.

Meaningless question ("what happens when an irresistible force meets an immovable object?).

Excluded middle - considering only the two extremes in a range of possibilities (making the "other side" look worse than it really is).

Short-term v. long-term - a subset of excluded middle ("why pursue fundamental science when we have so huge a budget deficit?").

Slippery slope - a subset of excluded middle - unwarranted extrapolation of the effects (give an inch and they will take a mile).

Confusion of correlation and causation.

Caricaturing (or stereotyping) a position to make it easier to attack.

Suppressed evidence or half-truths.

Weasel words - for example, use of euphemisms for war such as "police action" to get around limitations on Presidential powers. "An important art of politicians is to find new names for institutions which under old names have become odious to the public"

(excerpted from The Planetary Society Australian Volunteer Coordinators Prepared by Michael Paine )

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