A CHRONOLOGY OF THE COMMON ERA
at thinkworks.com
Compiled from sources on the internet and edited by Dimitris Sivyllis

This site is dedicated to our children. These 2000 years would not have been possible without them.

  The mission of this website is to provide a comprehensive and accurate way to research and cross-reference information about the events, people and epochs which have shaped the Common Era.

History is presented in a linear, timeline, format to emphasize the causality and interdependability of historical events and figures.

The information in this website is shown in columns. You can select a variety of combination of columns to view depending on your research needs or screen size.

Please wait for each page to load, then scroll down to find a Year, and scroll left and right to see all columns of info.

To find a specific event or person use the "Find" function of your browser: type in a particular year, event, or name.

All possible care has been taken to ensure accuracy and objectivity
This Chronology is continuously updated and improved.
Maintained in a Filemaker Pro (R) database, created by M-C/Works Inc for thinkworks.com.
Please direct any comments, corrections, additions, or suggestions to the Webmaster

In the works:
A Chronology page for Before Common Era
A Reference for Historical events and figures in the Movies
A Reference for Historical events and figures depicted in Art

Please wait for the page to load (more than 1.5 MBs) and select a combination of info columns to view from the links below.
MACINTOSH users: Best way to scroll up and down is by using the [Page Up] and [Page Down] keys on your keyboard.
1. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS | BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
2. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
3. ROME: POPES & EMPERORS
4. CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
5. BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
6. BRITAIN
7. FRANCE
8. MILESTONES & EVENTS

See a graphic TIMELINE OF THE COMMON ERA
Read Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit!

INFORMATION IN THIS SITE UPDATED: 01:19 EST (6:19 GMT) 1/26/04

  

JUMP TO MIDDLE (12th Century) | BOTTOM (late 20th century)

INFORMATION IN THIS SITE UPDATED: 22:55 EDT (26:55 GMT) 10/24/02

YEAR C.E.
MILESTONES & EVENTS
OF THE COMMON ERA
 

 

Birth of Jesus of Nazareth
placed at 4 BCE
 

 1

Common Era Begins  1

 14

Augustus dies.  14

 26

26-36 Pontius Pilate governor of Judea.
John the Baptist is executed on orders from Herod Antipas.

c. 26-29: Jesus of Nazareth travels around Judea and Galilee attracting discliples and crowds to his message of love and care for one another. Accounts of his disciples and followers, his parables and miracles, the opposition to his teaching, and his prophecies about his own fate, are collected by his disciples according to the oral tradition of the time.
 26

 29

Jesus of Nazareth crucified in Jerusalem

Jesus' birth is estimated at 4 BCE; If the date for the death of John the Baptist is accurate at 26 CE, the crucifixion of Jesus must have taken place at 29 CE and he must have been 33 years of age.

After the crucifiction, the Apostles begin spreading the teachings of Jesus, first in Judea and Galillee, then to the gentiles in Greece, Rome and elsewhere.

The Apostle Paul (Saul) first uses the Greek word "Hristos" (Christ) to describe Jesus as the "Messiah" (Christ means Messiah in Greek) while preaching to the gentiles in Antioch.

During the first decade after Jesus' crucifixion the church that grows in His name is split between those who follow James, brother of Jesus, and Peter, His favoprite disciple, who maintain that followers should abide by the Laws of Moses and be circumcised, and, the followers of Paul, mainly gentiles. Paul makes a passionate case at the First Apostolic Counsel for accepting gentiles into the faith but without forcing the Law of Moses to the letter upon them. Paul, arguably, is solely responsible for the fact that the teachings of Jesus, as told by Paul, reached the gentiles in Greece and Rome.

Christianity, as it becomes known after the first decades, is seeded and will flourish within Judaism until the execution of James, brother of Jesus, and then among gentiles in Antioch, Athens, Ephesus, Corinth, Rome, Byzantium and elsewhere until the Third Century and subsequently evolve into a new religion in 325 CE with the establishment of The Creed of Faith.

During the first two centuries of the Common Era Christian communities are established around the Mediterranean basin.

The first Christians celebrate family suppers in memory of Jesus' Last Supper with the disciples before his crucifiction. This practice gives birth to the traditions which will eventually evolve into the Holy Litourgy (Mass) and the sharing of wine and bread to represent the Blood and Body of Christ. A tradition which culminates in the mystery of Eucharist (Communion) during litourgy, where it is believed that the offerings of wine and bread are transformed into the Blood and Body of Christ

After the death of the Apostles Christian communities gradually develop their own separate theology, dogma and tradition, spreading the teachings of Christianity to all parts of the known world, throughout the Roman Empire. These rising variations on dogma and tradition will necessitate the First Oecumenical council which will be called by Emperor Constantine the Great, St. Constantine, in Nicea, near Constantinople, in 325 C.E. in order to proclaim one Creed of the Christian Faith.
 29

 36

Stephen the "deacon" is martyred; the Church scatters  36

 37

Head of Christian Church at Byzantium (later Constantinople) named: BISHOP of BYZANTIUM

Jonathon, a son of Annas (High Priest from AD6-15), replaces Annas' son-in-law Caiaphas as High Priest in Jerusalem.

Paul makes his first visit as a Christian to Jerusalem. This follows his journey to Arabia and return to Damascus to preach (Galatians 1:17). Paul is forced to leave Jerusalem and goes to his home town of Tarsus (Acts 9:30)
 37

 38

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

The conversion of Saul (later Paul) on the road to Damascus
 38

 39

Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, and his wife Herodias, are forced into exile in Gaul (France) by Caligula. Galilee and Perea are granted to King Herod Agrippa I to add to the territories already held since AD37  39

 40

40-65 Missions of Paul and associates, especially to Gentiles

The word Christians first used by Paul (Saul) to describe believers in Antioch

AD40-50 - According to tradition, Matthew wrote the GOSPEL OF MATTHEW, originally in Aramaic.
 40

 41

King Herod Agrippa I is now granted Judea and Samaria by Claudius. The line of Roman procurators temporarily comes to an end. After just four years, Agrippa I's kingdom equals that of his grandfather, Herod the Great (37-4BC).  41

 42

Head of Christian Church at Rome named: BISHOP OF ROME

Paul joins Barnabas to work with the established church in Syrian Antioch
 42

 43

Under Claudius, the Roman conquest of Britannia (Britain) begins  43

 44

Herod Agrippa I, grandson of Herod the Great and son of the murdered Aristobulus is made king and granted Iturea and Trachonitis by his friend, the emperor Caligula. The territories were previously ruled by his deceased uncle, Philip. He is also granted Abilene, once ruled by Lysanias

The apostle James, brother of John and son of Zebedee, is beheaded, and Peter imprisoned on the orders of King Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12:1-3)

King Herod Agrippa I dies suddenly in Caesarea (Acts 12:23). His son, Agrippa II, is too young to rule, and all the Jewish provinces return to direct Roman control. Roman procurators are again appointed over Judea.
Of Agrippa I's daughters, Drusilla later marries Felix, a Roman procurator of Judea (Acts 24:24), and Bernice becomes a close companion of her brother Agrippa II (Acts 25:13)
 44

 45

AD45-50 - The LETTER OF JAMES is written, probably by James, brother of Jesus, sometime before the Council held at Jerusalem in c AD49  45

 46

Paul's first missionary journey c AD46-48  46

 47

47-48 Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus [Acts 13, 4-12]  47

 48

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

AD48 or 49 - Paul may have written his LETTER TO THE GALATIANS around this time from Syrian Antioch, or on the way to the Council of Jerusalem; otherwise c AD56 or 57
 48

 49

Apostolic Council held at Jerusalem

Paul's second Missionary journey c AD49-52
 49

 50

All four of the gospels which were eventually selected among others to be included in the New Testament were written, by their respective author(s) beginning, in some cases, before the year 50 of the Common Era. In some schools of thought, it is believed that all four were completed by as early as 70 CE. Mainstream schools of thought suggest an end-date around 95 CE, or later into the first quarter of the second century."

Emperor Claudius expels the Jews from Rome

Herod Agrippa II is old enough to be appointed king of Chalcis by emperor Claudius
 50

 51

AD49-52 (range, 2 to 4 years between AD48-54) - Paul and Silas leave Syrian Antioch for the SECOND MISSIONARY JOURNEY. They travel through Asia Minor (present day Turkey), before crossing to Macedonia (northern Greece). Paul then sails south to Corinth in Achaia (southern Greece) and stays for 18 months. Here he appears before the proconsul Gallio, and writes his FIRST and SECOND LETTERS TO THE THESSALONIANS. Sailing for Palestine, he calls in at Ephesus (western Turkey), before returning to Syrian Antioch via Jerusalem  51

 52

AD50-60 - Oral traditions about the life and ministry of Jesus continue to be committed to writing, and collections assembled  52

 53

Paul's third Missionary journey c AD53-58

From AD53, King Herod Agrippa II, exchanges Chalcis for parts of Iturea and Trachonitis, Galilee and Perea.
 53

 54

Claudius, Roman emperor, is poisoned, succeeded by Nero  54

 58

c AD58-60 Paul's arrest in Jerusalem and imprisonment in Caesaria for trial before the procurator Felix. He is also seen by Drusilla, Felix's wife. Paul is kept in prison for two years  58

 60

In Britannia, Boadicea, queen of the Iceni, revolts against Roman rule but is defeated and killed by the Roman governor Suetonius Paulinus

Paul's journey to Rome and continued imprisonment c AD60-63.
Paul sails for Rome, is shipwrecked on Malta where he stays for three months and meets Publius, the chief official. He continues on to Rome via Sicily.
Paul under house arrest in Rome for two years. During these years, he writes his Letters to the Colossians, to philemon, to the Ephesians, and to the Philippians
 60

 63

Joseph of Arimathea came to Glastonbury on the first Christian mission to Britain  63

 64

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Paul's possible release from imprisonment in Rome c AD64-67
Paul may have been released from house arrest in Rome, and travelled to Spain?, Macedonia, Achaia, Crete, and Asia Minor (Turkey)

c AD64-67 - The apostle Peter wrote the First Letter of Peter, and possibly the Second letter during this period
c AD64 - During the persecutions that follow the fire, the apostles Peter and Paul may have been martyred. According to tradition Peter was crucified head downwards, and Paul beheaded, both in Rome. Paul, however, may have been on his further travels at this time, following his earlier release from house arrest, and Peter executed later

Roman emperor Nero (37-68) accuses the Christians of having started the fire which destroyed large sections of Rome, thus initiating widespread persecution.
 64

 65

The Letter to Hebrews addressed to Jewish Christians may have been written about this time

c AD65-70 - The Gospel Of Mark may have been written, traditionally in Rome, around the time of Peter's execution
 65

 66

If Paul was released, he would have written his First Letter to Timothy and his Letter to Titus around now, perhaps from the Macedonia area

AD66-73 - Jewish war against Roman rule. The campaign in Judea is initially led by the Roman general Vespasian. Many Jews, and probably Christians leave Jerusalem
 66

 67

Paul is possibly re-arrested, taken to Rome, and sometime before execution, wrote his Second Letter to Timothy.

The Letter to Jude, brother of James and thus Jesus, may have been written around this time, possibly in Palestine
 67

 68

Emperor Nero commits suicide

cAD68-70 - The Book of Revelation may have been written at this time, following the persecutions of Nero, but before the Fall of Jerusalem. Otherwise Revelation was written towards the end of the 1st century.

Qumran (Essenes?) community destroyed by Rome, site of Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1949
 68

 70

Jewish revolt, Sacking of Jerusalem by the Romans: Jerusalem is captured by Titus and the Temple destroyed

Destruction of the Temple
Diaspora begins

Separation of Christianity from Judaism widens after capture of Jerusalem
 70

 73

Jewish resistance ends with the fall of the fortress of Masada, last remaining stronghold of Jewish Zealots  73

 75

75-77 The Roman conquest of Britain is complete as Wales is finally subdued; Julius Agricola is imperial governor (to 84)  75

 79

Mount Vesuvius catastrophic eruption.
The Roman resort towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum are burried in the ashes, preserving a snapshot of Roman life for the millenia to come.
 79

 80

c. 80-100 Gospel of Matthew is composed.  80

 90

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

cAD90-100 - The First, Second and Third Letters of John are written by the apostle John from Ephesus
 90

 100

The apostle John, according to tradition, dies a natural death at Ephesus

c. 100-125 Gospel of John is composed.

100-150 Writings of apostolic fathers show a concern with unity and good order of churches

First London Bridge is built across the Thames by the Romans.
 100

 112

Pliny, governor of Bithynia, consults Emperor Trajan on how to deal with those accused as Christians  112

 117

117-138: Hadrian emperor of Rome, improves defenses and codifies law.  117

 122

Construction of Hadrian's Wall in Britain begins, to mark the northernmost border of the empire separating the areas that are today England and Scotland.  122

 132

Shimeon Bar-Kokhba and Rabbi Akiba Ben-Joseph lead Jews in a revolt against Roman rule. They capture Jerusalem and create an independent state of Israel.  132

 133

Julius Severus governor of Britain is sent to Palestine to crush the revolt  133

 135

Julius Severus, formerly governor of Britain, crushes the revolt in Palestine. Final Diaspora (dispersion) of the Jews occurs.  135

 136

The bishop of Rome, Hyginus, assumes the title of "pope"  136

 140

Justin founds school of Christian philosophy at Rome

Shepherd of Hermas is written, presenting a highly developed system of bishops, deacons, and priests.
 140

 150

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Four "canonical" gospels are collected together.

School of Alexandria is founded in Egypt, quickly becoming a major center for both Christian theology and Greek philosophy. Among its prominent teachers are the theologians Clement (died c. 215) and Origen (c. 185 - 254).
 150

 165

Justin's martyrdom  165

 166

Roman Emporer Marcus Aurelius sends gifts to Chinese Emperor Huan Ti.  166

 167

At the request of King Lucius the missionaries Phagan and Deruvian were said to have been sent by Pope Eleutherius to convert the Britons to Christianity. This is perhaps the most widely believed of the legends of the founding of Christianity in Britain.  167

 170

Celsus writes True Word, the first book opposing Christianity  170

 180

180-200 Irenaeus of Lyons preaches to Celts in Gaul, refuting gnosticism

Clement heads school of "true gnosticism" in Alexandria

Irenaeus (125 - c. 202), Catholic theologian, writes Against Heresies in an attempt to fight the spread of Gnosticism. He claimed that "every church must agree" with the church of Rome because of its apostolic authority.

First African Christians are martyred at Scillium.
 180

 184

Lucius Artorius Castus commander of a detachment of Sarmatian conscripts stationed in Britain led his troops to Gaul to quell a rebellion. This is the first appearance of the name Artorius in history and some believe that this Roman military man is the original or basis for the Arthurian legend. The theory says that Castus' exploits in Gaul at the head of a contingent of mounted troops are the basis for later similar traditions about "King Arthur and, further, that the name Artorius" became a title or honorific which was ascribed to a famous warrior in the fifth century.  184

 190

Christian council determine "official" date of Easter.  190

 197

Tertullian begins writing apologetics in Carthage, Afica

First recorded usage of the term "catholic" appears in the writings of Apollonius; used in reference to 1 John. The word ³catholic² in Greek means ³all encompassing² (uniqueness, no variation).
 197

 200

First mention of Christians in Britain

New Testament canon is mostly fixed in currently known form.
 200

 203

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas in Carthage
 203

 208

Severus goes to defend Britain and repairs Hadrian's Wall  208

 209

St. Alban first British martyr was killed for his faith in one of the few persecutions of Christians ever to take place on the island during the governorship of Gaius Junius Faustinus Postumianus  209

 212

Origen begins traveling, commending Christianity to high ranking officials throughout the empire  212

 215

Hippolytus of Rome compiles the Apostolic Tradition, describing how converts are to be discipled  215

 220

Goths invade Asia Minor  220

 230

Pope Urban I justifies the ownership of property by the Church, the elevation of bishops and the excommunication of heretics  230

 231

Origen founds school at Caesarea (Palestine)  231

 240

Gregory "the Wonder Worker" appointed bishop of Pontus (in north Asia Minor)  240

 246

Paul of Thebes retreats to the Egyptian desert and becomes the first Christian hermit  246

 248

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Cyprian appointed bishop of Carthage, the largest church in Africa, only two years after his conversion

Origen defends Christianity in Against Celsus
 248

 250

250-300: Increasing invasions of Rome by the Franks and the Goths

Emperor Decius begins the first, though short-lived, general persecution of Christians
 250

 256

Gaul overrun by the Germans from the Rhine  256

 260

260-305 Porphyry, a Neoplatonist philosopher, writes multivolume Against the Christians  260

 264

A council excommunicates Paul of Samosata  264

 268

Goths sack Athens, Corinth, and Sparta.

Lucianus of Antioch (born in Samosata) preaches that Jesus was only a man
 268

 270

Monasticism begins to spread in Egypt and Syria, promoting Christianity in rural areas

Anthony becomes a hermit in Egypt
 270

 276

Mani is crucified by the Sassanids for tring to incorporate Judaism Christianity and Zoroastrianism into one religion ("manicheism")  276

 285

Papa is ordained first bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon (the first "catholico  285

 286

Emperor Diocletian divides the empire - he rules the east and Maximilian rules the west.

Diocletian instigates the Tetrarchy, Consisting of one Augustus and one Ceasar in each of the two partitions. The empire will be ruled by the two sets of rulers (one higher placed tha his second in command) for only twelve years before the seconds in command attack their superiors and then each other. This is the path followed by Constantine, starting as Ceasar in York, south through Gaul, across the Milvian Bridge and into Rome in 312 C.E.
 286

 301

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Armenia becomes the first country to make Christianity its state religion.

the Armenian king Tiridates I converted by Gregory the Illuminator
 301

 303

Diocletian implements a Great Persecution of the Christians

emperor Diocletian orders a general persecution of the Christians
 303

 306

Constantine proclaimed Emperor at York , Western Empire

The first bishop of Nisibis is ordained
 306

 308

Constantine takes Gaul  308

 311

Donatus and others rebel against the appointment of the bishop of Carthage claiming independence of Church and state and claiming that the people could determine how worthy of administering sacraments a priest is  311

 312

312-337: Constantine the Great reunites Roman Empire with new capital at Byzantion called Constantinople

Roman emperor Constantine converts to Christianity
 312

 313

Edict of Milan:
After a victorius entry in Rome, following the battle of Milvian Bridge where Constantine defeated and killed Maxentius, Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan, legalizing Christianity in the Roman Empire.



Constantine ends the persecution of the Christians.

A cathedral is built in Edessa
 313

 314

Head of Church at Rome named:
POPE

Gregory the Illuminator founds Armenian church

Donatism is condemned as a heresy
 314

 315

Eusebius, the first church historian and later eulogist of Constantine, appointed bishop of Caesarea  315

 316

Donatism splits from Catholicism and spreads throughout Africa  316

 318

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Pachomius a disciple of Anthony organizes a community of ascetics at Tabennis in Egypt (birth of Christian monasticism)
 318

 320

Arius is expelled by the patriarch Alexander and during his travels through the eastern Roman empire converts more bishops  320

 323

Constantine builds a church to the apostle Peter on the Roman cemetery where the martyr is buried  323

 324

Head of Church at Constantinople named:
ARCHBISHOP of CONSTANTINOPLE

Constantine I achieves full control of Roman Empire.
Constantine finally achieves full control over an undivided empire. He was a skillful politician who is popularly believed to have made Christianity the official religion of the empire because of his personal convictions. In actuality that act was merely an expedient intended to harness the power of its "God" for the benefit of the state. He re-located the imperial headquarters to Byzantium whose name he then changed to Constantinople. Despite his outward enthusiasm for Christianity and its powerful God he didn't close many pagan temples during his reign. He did however strip them of their former wealth which was then shifted to various Christian churches. This produced the result that many of the fledgling churches were put on a very firm financial footing and many of their members enjoyed great prosperity. The persecution of Christianity had stopped perhaps but its co-opting had just begun. Early Christianity had no official hierarchies and functioned best as a series of small church groups worshipping with and caring for their own members while spreading Christ's Gospel in their local areas. Constantine's move created a top-heavy structure that would quickly depart from its original purity; a church beholden to the state out of touch with the needs of its adherents and concerned only with its own comfort. Eusebius the early Christian historian has given us some additional insights into the motivations of the Emperor Constantine in his "Ecclesiastical History".
 324

 325

Constantine calls the First Ecumenical Council at Nicea to condemn the Arian heresy, which had taught that the Son was inferior to the Father.

The Nicene Creed, the Creed of Christian faith is established and will remain intact until the Schism of 1054.

Council of Nicaea discusses the divine/human nature of Jesus and approves the Christian canon (the New Testament) against "heretic" books

THE NICENE CREED

I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages. Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten, not created, of one essence with the Father, through whom all things were made. For us and for our salvation, He came down from heaven and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and became man. He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and He suffered and was buried.

On the third day He rose according to the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father.

He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead. His kingdom will have no end.

And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father, who together with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified, who spoke through the prophets.

In one, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. I expect the resurrection of the dead. And the life of the age to come. Amen.


 325

 330

Eastern Roman Empire

Constantine dedicates the city of Byzantium as the eastern capital of the Empire or "New Rome," renaming it Constantinople after himself.

Byzantine Empire; Romiosine 330-1453

Nino converts Georgian royal family

Amoun and Macarius found monasteries in the Egyptian desert

Hilarion organizes a monastery at Gaza in Palestine

Mar Augin founds a monastery in Syria near Nisibis
 330

 334

the first bishop is ordained for Merv in Transoxania  334

 336

Arius, priest at Alexandria and founder of Arianism, dies. Arianism was one of the most widespread and divisive heresies in the history of Christianity.  336

 337

Constantine received "Christian" baptism on his deathbed. Joint rule of Constantine's three sons: Constantine II (to 340); Constans (to 350); Constantius (to 361)  337

 339

Athanasius of Alexandria visits Rome accompanied by the two Egyptian monks Ammon and Isidore disciples of Anthony who export the idea of monasticism  339

 340

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Roman legislation begins to favor Christianity and penalize paganism

Christianization and literalization of the Goths (Ulfila and the "Gothic bible

The first monastery of Persia is founded by Aphrahat near Mosul
 340

 344

catholics are massacred in Persia  344

 345

Pachomius dies and his institution already counts eight monasteries and hundreds of monks organized in a hierarchy  345

 350

Christianity first reaches Ethiopia.
Frumentius converts the royalty of Axum, Ethiopia.

the missionary Ninian establishes the church Candida Casa at Whithorn in Galloway Scotland
 350

 351

Emperor Julian attempts to reintroduce paganism in the place of Christianity.  351

 358

Basil founds the monastery of Annesos in Pontus the model for eastern monasticism (perfect Christian life and constant penance meditation + poverty + humility)  358

 360

Huns invade Europe

Martin future bishop of Tours founds the first French monastery at Liguge

the Vandals convert to christianity
 360

 362

Marius Victorinus, one of Rome's most famous rhetors, converts, causing much public excitement  362

 363

Persia recaptures Nisibis from the Romans and the school of Nisibis moves to Edessa  363

 367

Festal Epistle of St. Athanasius (c. 293 - 373) offers earliest known list of the New Testament canon in its current form.  367

 369

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Roman general Theodosius drives the Picts and Scots out of Roman Britain
 369

 371

The Hunns cross the river Volga into Europe having left Mongolia in the 2nd century leadin a nomadic life in their trek west. They are defeated in the battle of the field of Nations and depart Europe returning East beyond the Ural Mountains.

Martin, evangelist to the pagans of central Gaul, is elected bishop of Tours

Martin of Tours converts pagans
 371

 372

Buddhism introduced into Korea.  372

 374

Ambrose is elected bishop of Milan which has become the main Christian center in Italy  374

 375

the Jerusalem Talmud (manual of lifestyle) is compiled by western Jews  375

 376

Huns conquer Russia

Visigoths convert to Arian christianity
 376

 379

the Roman empire bans Arianism  379

 380

Emperor Theodosius makes orthodox Christianity the official religion of the empire

Ulphilas, Arian missionary bishop among Goths and translator of Gothic Bible, dies

Theodosius I proclaims Christianity as the sole religion of the Roman Empire

Ambrose preaches virginity
 380

 381

Council II, Constantinople I,
Arianism condemned;
regarded as definitively establishing Roman Catholic orthodoxy

Head of Church at Constantinople named:
PATRIARCH of CONSTANTINOPLE

Second Ecumenical Council convoked by Theodosius I in Constantinople
 381

 383

Magnus Maximus (Macsen Wledig a Spaniard was proclaimed Emperor in Britain by the island's Roman garrison. With an army of British volunteers he quickly conquered Gaul Spain and Italy.  383

 386

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Jerome founds monasteries in Bethlehem
 386

 388

Maximus occupied Rome itself. Theodosius the eastern Emperor defeated him in battle and beheaded him in July 388 with many of the remnant of Maximus' troops settling in Armorica. The net result to Britain was the loss of many valuable troops needed for the island's defense (the "first migration").  388

 392

392-395:Theodosius the Great, last united Roman emperor  392

 395

PARTITION :
WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
 395

 397

the eight council (at Carthage) defines the Christian canon (the "New Testament") as comprised of four official gospels (all others are declared heretic) and the letters of the apostles  397

 398

Maximus of Turin preaches against pagans  398

 400

Jerome (Eusebius Hieronymus) translates the Bible into Latin (the "Vulgate  400

 401

Innocent I becomes Pope (until 417) and claims universal jurisdiction over the Roman Church.  401

 405

c. 405 St. Jerome (c. 347 - 419) completes the Vulgate - a Latin translation of both the Old and New Testaments. This remains the Latin Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.  405

 410

The Goths led by Alarik sack Rome

At the council of Seleucia the Persian church declares its independence from Antioch and Rome

The ascetic monk Maron sounds the Christian Maronite religion in Syria
 410

 411

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Thanks to Augustine Donatism begins to decline
 411

 415

Roman emperor Theodosius II expels the Jews from Alexandria  415

 418

British monk Pelagius (c. 354 - 420) is excommunicated. Pelagius denied original sin and the need for baptism, asserting that if God asked men to do good, then they must be capable of doing good on their own. He was condemned by Augustine.  418

 424

At the synod of Dadyeshu the "catholico" of the Eastern Church proclaims himself as a patriarch on equal footing with Antioch and Rome  424

 425

The first bishops are ordained for Herat and Samarkand  425

 428

Nestorius a monk in the Syrian monastery of Euprepius is appointed by the eastern Roman emperor Theodosius II as patriarch of Constantinople and preaches the doctrine of two natures of Jesus  428

 431

Council III, Ephesus,
The Third Ecumenical Council at Ephesus condemns the Nestorian heresy and approves the veneration of the Virgin Mary as Theotokos (God-Bearer or Mother of God). The Nestorians go into exile in the Persian Empire and become the Assyrian Orthodox Church of the East.

Palladius is sent by the Pope as first bishop of Ireland

the third Ecumenical Council convened in Ephesus declares that there is only one nature in Jesus (divine condemns Nestorius (who is then banned by Theodosius II) and affirms that Mary was the "mother of God"
 431

 432

The Roman missionary Patrick is taken prisoner to Ireland  432

 433

Attila becomes ruler of the Huns (until 453). He attacks Roman provinces  433

 440

The hermit Symeon the Stylite lives on top of a column (monastery of Telanissos in Syria  440

 445

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

The emperor Valentinian III decrees that all western bishops must obey the pope
 445

 450

Angles, Saxons and Jutes begin conquest of Britain after Romans leave

the first British monasteries are established in Wales

Theodosius II dies and Marcian succeeds him the first Roman emperor to be crowned by a religious leader (the patriarch of Constantinople)
 450

 451

Council IV, Chalcedon,
The Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon condemns the Monophysite heresy and affirms that Christ had both a divine and a human nature. The Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopian, and Syrian Orthodox Churches would remain Monophysite; the Greek Orthodox church and the Western church adopted the Chalcedonian or Dyophysite position. Fatal disaffection of Syria & Egypt. This Council also gives Constantinople equal standing with "Old" Rome.

Attila invades Gaul but is repulsed by joint forces of Franks, Alemanni and Romans at battle of Chalons. Invades Italy the next year.

the fourth Ecumenical Council convened in Chalcedon condemns Dioscurus of Alexandria for monophysitism (Jesus is of one nature only divine) and affirms that Jesus was one person of two natures (both human and divine) which causes the schism of the Coptic Orthodox church from the Churches of Rome and Constantinople
 451

 455

Vandals destroy Rome  455

 457

The eastern Roman emperor is crowned by the patriarch of Constantinople instead of the Pope  457

 458

458-751: Merovingian Dynasty rules in France  458

 460

Persian king Firuz persecutes Jews who emigrate to Arabia  460

 476

End of the Western Roman Empire

Odoacer, German cheiftan, ends Western Roman Empire when he overthrows the last emperor, Romulus Augustulus and becomes King of Italy
 476

 481

Emperor Zeno shuts down the Nestorian school of Edessa causing Nestorian scholars to flee to Persia (Nisibis)  481

 484

The Synod of Beth Papat in Persia declares the Nestorian docrine (two natures of Jesus) as the official theology of the East Syrian Church centered in Edessa  484

 490

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Vandals take part of Spain and make Toledo their capital

Brigid founds the monastery of Kildare in Ireland
 490

 493

Theodoric the Great establishes Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy  493

 496

Clovis, ruler of the Franks, converts to Christianity

Clovis converts Franks to catholicism
 496

 499

The Babylonian Talmud is compiled for eastern Jews a much more orthodox manual of lifestyle than the western Talmud  499

 500

The legend of Arthur, King of the Britons and his knights of the Round table is usually assumed to refer to a time between the 6th and 8th centuries. Although no evidence has ever been found of Camelot, the round table or of the existence of Arthur himself, his legend may be a composite of several personages from the eras preceding the establishment of the first kings and the House of Wessex.

Pseudo-Dionysius writes mystical works

c.500-50 - Spread of Celtic monasticism throughout Europe
 500

 527

Reign of Justinian I begins
he will conquer North Africa, southern Spain and Italy

Arguably the most important of Byzantine Emperors and the one who marked the final transition from the latin past and paganism to a purely Christian, Greek Empire.

Justinian began his life in Bulgaria, a former Roman province, as a poor shepherd boy. His uncle Justin was the commander of the Imperial Guard in Constantinople. Justinian went on the long journey to the Capital. Shortly after he achieved the best education, the emperor died, and the people chose Justin to succeed himas Justinus I.

Justin was advised that he should work with Justinian as co-emperor. When Justin died, Justinian became the sole ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire. Justinian began making harsh rules against the pagans and their religion, and forced people to accept Christianity. It can be seen as the first forceful action of Christianity. He destroyed synagogues and Jewish temples all over his empire.

Justinian built vast structures of Byzantine, not Roman, art. He is seen as one of the founders of the "Byzantine Empire", as opposed to the East Roman Empire. His reign was filled with military success through his two great generals, Belisarius and Narsus. At the end of his reign, he controlled a part of Spain, Africa, Italy, Turkey and much of the east.

Justinian created the Justinian code, which replaced the old Roman laws and set the foundation for subsequent western legal systems.

Byzantium enforces anti-Jewish laws and the Jews all but disappear from the eastern Roman Empire
 527

 529

Emperor Justinian I issues the Code of Laws

Justinian closes the pagan Philosophical Academy in Athens.

Benedetto of Nursia founds the monastery of Monte Cassino and codifies western monasticism (absolute power of the abbot

The council of Orange condemns the Pelagian heresy and accepts Augustine's doctrine of salvation.
 529

 530

The Benedictine monk Cassiodorus encourages monks to copy manuscripts of the classics  530

 532

532-537: Aghia Sofia, the new cathedral of Constantinople, is built by order of Justinian, on the site of the earlier Church of Aghia Sofia which was consumed by fire.

Legend has it that a beekeeper noticed that bees in one of the beehives had fashioned what appeared to be the model of a magnificent church out of wax. He took the miraculous find to the palace and presented it to Empress Theodora who then prompted her husband to commission the building of the most magnificent Church in Christiandom.
 532

 533

Mercurius is elected pope and takes the name of John II the first pope to change name upon election  533

 534

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

The Roman empire destroys the Arian kingdom of the Vandals
 534

 537

The church of Aghia Sofia (Holy Wisdom) commissioned in Constantinople by Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora is completed by architects Isidoros and Anthemios

 537

 541

Jacob Bardaeus bishop of Edessa organizes the Monophysite Church in western Syria (the "Jacobites")  541

 544

Ciaran founds the monastery of Clonmacnoise in Ireland  544

 546

Columbanus founds the monastery of Derry in Ireland  546

 553

Council V, Constantinople II,
Monophysitism condemned again. The Ecumenical Council condemns the heresy of the Three Chapters
 553

 556

Columbanus founds the monastery of Durrow in Ireland  556

 563

Columbanus founds the monastery of Iona off the coast of Scotland soon to become the main center of the Columban school  563

 570

Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, born
during the reign of Khusro Anosharwan. His father was of the Quraysh tribe (the name means ' shark ' and may have been derived from an ancient tribal emblem.) This tribe gained much power and influence, both because of their commercial activity in their hub at the city of Mecca, and because of their importation and custody of important idols at Mecca.
 570

 573

Gregory is appointed bishop of Tours  573

 580

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Monte Cassino is sacked by the Lombards and the monks flee to Rome
 580

 587

The Visigothic king Recared converts to catholicism  587

 588

The Visigoths abandon Aryanism and convert to catholicism  588

 590

For the first time a monk is elected Pope Gregory I  590

 597

The Roman brand of Christianity is brought to Britain for the first time by St. Augustine the missionary sent with forty monks by Pope Gregory to convert the Saxons. Augustine founded a monastery and the first church at Canterbury and was proclaimed its first Archbishop.  597

 600

Pope Gregory I promulgates the doctrine of salvation through confession and penance  600

 601

Augustine converts king Ethelbert of Kent and establishes the see of Canterbury with himself as its first archbishop  601

 603

The Lombards convert to Christianity and move their capital to Pavia  603

 604

Gregory I dies  604

 609

The Irish monk Colombanus founds the monastery at Bobbio  609

 610

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Muhammad and his followers go to Mecca, where they are not accepted
 610

 612

The Visigothic king Sisebut forces the Jews of Spain to release all slaves and convert to Christianity  612

 613

Clotaire II and Dagobert I unify France after years of continual disunity  613

 615

Colombanus dies in Italy  615

 620

The Visigoths in Spain persecute the Jews  620

 622

Muhammad and his followers flee Mecca to Medina. The year of that flight, or Hijrah, became the first year of the Islamic calendar, and the beginning the Muslim era.  622

 627

Pope Gregory I sends Paulinus to found the see of York and convert king Edwin of Northumbria  627

 632

Muhammad in Mecca pronounced the perfection of the new religion.

Muhammad dies
 632

 634

Muslim (Arab) Empire grows  634

 635

Cynegils king of Wessex converts to christianity  635

 636

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Arabs capture Jerusalem
 636

 637

Arabs conquer Jerusalem  637

 638

Omar defeats the Byzantine army

the Arabs allow the Jews to return to Jerusalem
 638

 639

The Arabs conquer Syria (mainly Nestorian) from Byzantium  639

 641

Muslims conquer Persia  641

 642

the Arabs conquer Egypt (mainly monophysite) from Byzantium  642

 647

Amadeus bishop of Maastricht carries out missionary work in Frisia (Holland) and among the Slavs  647

 650

Arianism disappears after the Lombards convert to catholicism  650

 657

King Oswy of Northumberland founds the Benedictine monastery of Whitby in Yorkshire  657

 663

Constans II is the last eastern Roman emperor to set foot in Rome  663

 664

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Iona monk Wilfrid is appointed bishop of York
 664

 668

The monk Theodore of Tarsus is appointed as archbishop of Canterbury  668

 670

Arabs attack N. Africa

Whitby monk Caedmon translates the gothic Bible into Germanic vernacular (ancient english
 670

 674

Benedict Biscop founds the monastery of Wearmouth in Northumbria  674

 678

Wilfrid evangelizes in Frisia (Holland  678

 680

680-681 Council VI,Constantinople III,
Monotheletism condemned
 680

 681

Benedict founds the monastery of Jarrow in Northumbria  681

 685

John V is the first of a series of Greek and Syriac Popes under the influence of Constantinople  685

 687

The Danes destroy the monastery of Whitbey  687

 690

English missionary Willibrord evangelizes in Holland and Denmark  690

 694

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

The Visigothic king Egica orders all Jews enslaved
 694

 698

Arabs capture Carthage  698

 700

Babylonian Jews extend their influence as the Arab conquest spreads west  700

 711

Tariq ibn-Ziyad and a Berber army cross the Strait of Gibraltar into Iberia (Spain)

The Arabs conquer southern Spain from the Visigoths (with help from the Jews)
 711

 716

Arab empire extends from Lisbon, Spain to China

Iona conforms to Roman usage
 716

 719

Arabs complete their conquest in Spain  719

 722

the Anglosaxon Benedectine monk Boniface (Wynfrid) evangelizes in Saxony  722

 726

During the iconoclasm Constantinople orders all images to be destroyed  726

 730

Byzantine Emperor Leo III bans the veneration of images and relics, inaugurating the first period of Iconoclasm.  730

 731

Bede writes the "Ecclesiastical History of the English People  731

 732

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Charles Martel halts Arabian advance in France

The Muslim invasion of Europe is stopped by the Franks at the battle of Tours
 732

 739

Boniface reforms the Frankish church  739

 744

Boniface founds the monastery of Fulda in Germany  744

 751

Pepin the Short, Martel's son, becomes King of the Franks

Pepin sends help to the Pope in Italy

The Lombards under king Aistulf conquer Ravenna from the Byzantines and indirectly release Rome from the influence of Constantinople
 751

 752

Stephen II is Pope for only one day  752

 754

Donation of Pepin,
Byzantine Exarchate of Ravennabecomes Papal States

Although the Pope had been the de facto governor of Rome for a few years, the Donation of Pepin in 754 begins the formal history of the Papacy as a territorial power. This would last until 1870, giving the Papal States a run of 1116 years. The origin terms of the grant were for the "Exarchate of Ravenna," i.e. the Roman Imperial territory that was preserved across central Italy after the invasion of Lombards in 568. The most important parts of this were, of course, Rome itself and the area of Romagna around Ravenna in the north, with a narrow salient connecting them.

Boniface is killed by Frisians

pope Stephen II anoints Pepin III king of the Franks
 754

 756

The Caliphrate of Cordoba is founded by Abd-ar-Rahma in Spain

Pepin again fights for the Pope in Italy, Papal States formed

Pepin III defeats the Lombards and conquers Ravenna but leaves the conquered territories to the Pope thereby founding the Papal State and establishing a temporal power for the Pope
 756

 768

The Frankish kindom is divided among Pepin's sons: Carloman and Charlemagne (Charles  768

 769

At the Lateran council the cardinals decide that only cardinals can become popes  769

 771

771-814: Charlemagne rules in France, conquers Lombards, part of Spain, Bavarians, Avars, and the Saxons

 771

 775

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

The Eastern patriarchate moves from Seleucia-Ctesiphon to Baghdad
 775

 782

Charlemagne summons the monk and scholar Alcuin of York to head the palace school at Aachen: revival of learning in Europe  782

 787

The Seventh Ecumenical Council, Nicea II, condemns iconoclasm and restores the veneration of images underguidance of Empress Irene.  787

 790

Vikings begin to attack the British Isles  790

 793

Vikings invade Britain for the first time in a surprise attack on the monastic community at Lindisfarne (Holy Island)  793

 800

St. Leo III crowns Charlemagne Roman Emperor;
gives Papacy basis for claiming sovereign rights over later Holy Roman Emperors

Pope Leo III crowns Charles emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and therefore introduces theocratic monarchy in Europe
 800

 813

Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pious, is crowned by his father  813

 814

Charlemagne dies, succeeded by his son Louis the Pious  814

 815

A council called by Emperor Leo V again bans images, inaugurating the second period of Iconoclasm.  815

 817

Louis the Pious decides to divide his empire between his sons Lothair (emperor) and his other two sons as kings of two other subordinate kingdoms

Benedict of Ariane draws up the monastic constitution of Benedectine monasteries (monks as a political entity that mediates between laity and deity
 817

 822

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Mojmir prince of Morava converts to christianity
 822

 826

826-27: Arabs conquer Crete, Sicily and Sardinia

the Frankish missionary Angkar bishop of Hamburg evangelizes in Denmark and Sweden

Harald Klak of Denmark converts to Christianity
 826

 828

Egbert of Wessex is recognized as overlord of other English kings  828

 830

The Kirghiz drive the Uighurs west to the Tarim Basin  830

 843

Empress Theodora restores the veneration of images on the First Sunday of Lent, which became known as the Sunday of Orthodoxy.
End of the Iconoclastic struggle
Triumph of Orthodoxy

the "Restoration of the images" in Constantinople solves the iconoclastic controversy
 843

 844

Kenneth MacAlpine King of the Scots conquers the Picts; founds a unified Scotland  844

 845

the Irish theologian Johannes Scotus Erigena (John the Scot) takes over the Palatine Academy in France  845

 849

caliph al-Mutawakkil deposes the patriarch of the Eastern Christian Church and persecutes Christians  849

 852

Ansgar founds the churches at Hedeby and Ribe in Denmark  852

 855

855-79: Russian nation founded by the Vikings under Prince Rurik  855

 858

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Emperor Michael III deposes Patriarch Ignatius and installs Photius, a learned layman.

Nicholas I becomes pope and asserts the independence of the Church from local authorities and from Constantinople
 858

 859

Vikings repulsed in the Mediterranean  859

 861

Vikings discover Iceland

the Khazars convert to Judaism
 861

 862

Byzantine Emperor Michael III ("the Drunkard") sends Constantine (later Cyril, died 869) and his brother Methodius (died 885) to Moravia to teach Christianity to the Slavs. They translated the Bible and other religious writings into Old Church Slavonic. These "Apostles to the Slavs" also had the support of the Popes of Rome, Hadrian II and John VIII.

Boris of Bulgary converts to christianity

Ratislav of Moravia converts to christianity
 862

 863

Cyril and Methodius from Constantinople write the Slavic bible in the first Slavic alphabet glagolitic  863

 867

Rivalry between Greek and Latin missionaries to Bulgaria prompts Photius to convene a council that deposes Pope Nicholas III, and attacks Western notions of papal primacy and many Western practices, including the insertion of the word "filioque" into the Nicene Creed. The Eastern church now dates the East-West split from this event (the Photian Schism).
Also see 1054 CE
 867

 869

869-870 Council VIII,Constantinople IV,
patched up filioque and other differences, later repudiated by East, last Oecumenical Council recognized by West which included Eastern Church

Emperor Basil I "the Macedonian," who had murdered Michael III, seeks papal support by deposing Photius and restoring Ignatius. The Eighth Council held in support of Ignatius is considered by the West only to be the Eighth Ecumenical Council (Constantinople IV).
 869

 870

The Serbs convert to christianity  870

 871

Alfred the Great becomes King of a united England  871

 877

877-80: Ignatius dies, Photius restored as Patriarch, legates of Pope John VIII accept him on condition that Bulgaria be returned to the Latin church, without really settling the theological issues.  877

 878

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Alfred defeats Danish invaders
 878

 885

Mt Athos is granted independence as a religious retreat by emperor Basil I  885

 886

Alfred captures London from the Danes  886

 888

French crown offered to Count Odo  888

 904

Sergius III is elected pope thanks to a powerful Roman noblewoman the first of a series of popes appointed by the Roman aristocracy  904

 909

Berno founds the monastery of Cluny in Burgundy  909

 911

Vikings under Rollo found settlement in Normandy, a vassal state of France  911

 912

912-61: Arabian Spain becomes the centre of learning

the Normans become Christian
 912

 922

The Viking ruler Dirk I founds the Egmont Benedictine monastery in Haarlem (Holland  922

 932

Castile becomes independent of Leon  932

 948

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

The leader of the Magyars converts to christianity
 948

 950

The church of Hosios Loukas (Holy Luke) is founded in Stiris Greece  950

 960

Mieczyslaw I becomes first ruler of Poland  960

 962

East Frankish Otto crowned Emperor after he defeats Magyars, founds new Holy Roman Empire in Germany  962

 965

Harald Bluetooth (Harold I) converts the Danes to christianity  965

 969

Athanasios of Trebizond founds the Great Lavra (Great Monastery) on Mount Athos in Greece  969

 980

The Danes renew their raids on England attacking Chester and Southampton  980

 987

Hugh Capet takes the French throne and the Capetian dynasty of France is founded  987

 988

Prince Vladimir is baptized and marries a Byzantine princess.

Russia becomes a Christian nation.

Vladimir of Kiev converts to Christianity
 988

 989

989-99: Viking Danes attack Britain again  989

 995

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Olav I conquers Norway and proclaims it a Christian kingdom
 995

 996

Robert II succeeds Hugh Capet

a German is elected pope Gregory V
 996

 999

German emperor Otto III appoints Gerbert d'Aurillac pope who becomes the first French pope and assumes the name Sylvester II  999

 1000

Europe sees the new millenium in with the construction of magnificent cathedrals between the 10th and 12th centuries

Greenland and Iceland are christianized
 1000

 1001

cathedral of Ani in Armenia  1001

 1003

the Egyptian ruler Hakim persecutes Christianity  1003

 1008

AD: Sweden is christianized  1008

 1009

Arabs destroy the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem  1009

 1012

Romualdo founds the Camaldolese order in Italy (Anthony's monasticism and hermits appears in Italy  1012

 1017

The Danish king Canute converts to christianity  1017

 1018

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Bishop Hildebrand founds the monastery of San Miniato is founded near Florence in Italy
 1018

 1022

1022: the Catharist/Albigenian heresy a neo-manichaean sect believing that matter is evil spreads in Languedoc (southern France)  1022

 1032

A teenager is elected pope Benedict IX the youngest pope ever and the last of the "dynastic" popes  1032

 1033

Ferdinand I of Castile becomes King of Castile, Leon and Navarre  1033

 1036

Muslim Umayyad dynasty in Spain ends with the death of Hisham III and the caliphrate splits into 8 other kingdoms

San Miniato monk Giovanni Gualberto founds the monastery of Vallombrosa near Florence in Italy
 1036

 1039

Cluny's abbot Odilo turns his monastery into the head of a monastic feudal system whose influence spread all over Europe  1039

 1045

After Benedict IX gets married and sells the papacy to his godfather Gregory VI the emperor Heinrich III calls for the synod of Sutri to reform the corrupt papacy  1045

 1049

Heinrich III appoints Pope Leo IX a German reformer  1049

 1050

The ascetics Anthony and Theodosius found the Monastery of the Caves (Pecherska Lavra) in Kiev  1050

 1054

Schism between Eastern and Western Churches

also see 867 CE

Western Cluniac monks take over Greek monasteries in southern Italy, Byzantine patriarch Michael Caerularius responds by closing Latin churches in Constantinople. Pope Leo IX sends Cardinal Humbert (considered an expert on Eastern Christianity) to Constantinople to work things out. Not knowing Leo IX had died, Humbert excommunicates Patriarch Michael in Leo's name, asserting that the Eastern church had removed "filioque" from the Creed. The Western church traditionally dates the East-West split from this event (the Great Schism).

The Church of the Pope refers to itself as the "Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church". This is contrasted, with Protestant churches and with the Orthodox Churches of the East: Greek, Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, Russian, Romanian, Serbian, etc., as an usurpation. The "Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church" was the Universal (katholiki) Church of the Roman Empire. The Pope, then Bishop of Rome, was not the ruler of that Church, but one of the Ecumenical Patriarchs, along with the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria. The Pope was allowed to be primus inter pares as a courtesy towards the ancient seat of St. Peter. Governance of the Church was also shared among the five heads of the Church and with the Emperor, who was regarded as the "Equal of the Apostles," and who had the authority to call Church Councils. After the fall of the western Empire in 476, that meant only the Emperor in Constantinople. As it happened, only that Emperor had ever called Councils. After various disputes, the Latin and Greek Churches finally broke in 1054. Each thus claimed to be the proper "Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church," but over time and aided by the enslavement of the Eastern Orhodox peoples by the Turks, the Papal use of the terminology has gained more widespread recognition of the term.

The actual reason that was used to instigate and justify the legality of the Schism was the addition, by the Pope, of one word to the Creed of Faith which had united Christianity since Constantine had called the Council at Nicea to establish it: The paragraph which refers to the Holy Spirit decrees that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and is glorified together with the Father and the Son. The pope added the word filioque which now reads that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father AND the Son. The addition of this one word had extremely serious rumifications as to the nature of the Son and reverted to considerations of heresies past, as Arianism, Monothelitism and others. The Pope declared the other four heads of the church in error and assumed the position that his church, in the altered Creed carried the correct interpretation of Christianity.

The Schism between Greek and Latin Churches came at a very bad time for the Greeks. Defeat by the Turks and the loss of Asia Minor deprived Romania (Romiosini: a reference in Greek to the Christian roman Empire) of more than half its territory. This was a catastrophe, and actually the Empire never recovered. The Emperor Alexius Comnenos appealed to the West for help. Pope Urban II called for a "Crusade," a great Christian army, not just to help the Christians in the east, but to go on and reconquer Jerusalem. The First Crusade defeated the Turks badly enough that Romania was able to recover considerable territory, but then it went on and obtained the great goal of Jerusalem, which had been in Islamic hands for 463 years. the Crusades continued and the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade instead of proceeding to Jerusalem stopped at Constantinople, laid siege, took the City and enslaved the Christians of the east for almost 60 years.

911 years after the Schism, in 1965, Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople mutually nullify the excommunications of 1054. Some 3o years later, Pope John Paul II visited Athens and recited the Nicene Creed in its original form standing in holy liturgy together with the Archbishop of the Church of Greece

THE NICENE CREED

I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages. Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten, not created, of one essence with the Father, through whom all things were made. For us and for our salvation, He came down from heaven and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and became man. He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and He suffered and was buried.

On the third day He rose according to the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father.

He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead. His kingdom will have no end.

And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father, who together with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified, who spoke through the prophets.

In one, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. I expect the resurrection of the dead. And the life of the age to come. Amen.


the patriarch of Constantinople and the pope in Rome excommunicate each other (the Great Schism
 1054

 1055

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Seljuk Turks take Baghdad
 1055

 1056

Ferdinand I of Castile makes himself Emperor and initiates a period of reconquest of the Moors  1056

 1059

Humbert della Silva Candida publishes the rules by which popes should be elected restricting the electors to the cardinals and forbidding interference from the Roman nobility or the Holy Roman emperor and resumes the Donatist heresy (the morality of a priest determines whether he is worthy of administering sacraments)  1059

 1060

Decree for election of Popes by a college of Cardinals; beginning of Papal heyday

Svend Estridsen (Svend II) organizes the Danish church
 1060

 1066

The Norman Conquests

On 28 September 1066, with a favourable wind, William I The Conqueror landed unopposed at Pevensey and, within a few days, raised fortifications at Hastings. Having defeated an earlier invasion by the King of Norway at the Battle of Stamford Bridge near York in late September, Harold undertook a forced march south, covering 250 miles in some nine days to meet the new threat, gathering inexperienced reinforcements to replenish his exhausted veterans as he marched.

At the Battle of Senlac (near Hastings) on 14 October, Harold's weary and under-strength army faced William's cavalry (part of the forces brought across the Channel) supported by archers. Despite their exhaustion, Harold's troops were equal in number (they included the best infantry in Europe equipped with their terrible two-handled battle axes) and they had the battlefield advantage of being based on a ridge above the Norman positions.

The first uphill assaults by the Normans failed and a rumour spread that William had been killed; William rode among the ranks raising his helmet to show he was still alive. The battle was close-fought: a chronicler described the Norman counter-attacks and the Saxon defence as 'one side attacking with all mobility, the other withstanding as though rooted to the soil'. Three of William's horses were killed under him.

William skilfully co-ordinated his archers and cavalry, both of which the English forces lacked. During a Norman assault, Harold was killed - hit by an arrow and then mowed down by the sword of a mounted knight. Two of his brothers were also killed. The demoralised English forces fled. (In 1070, as penance, William had an abbey built on the site of the battle, with the high altar occupying the spot where Harold fell. The ruins of Battle Abbey, and the town of Battle, which grew up around it, remain.)

William was crowned on Christmas Day 1066 in Westminster Abbey.
 1066

 1067

Work is begun on building the Tower of London  1067

 1068

The Norman Conquest continues until 1069: William subdues the north of England (the "Harrying of the North" ): the region is laid waste  1068

 1070

The Hospital of Saint John is founded in Jerusalem by Amalfi merchants  1070

 1071

Turkish Muslims defeat the Christian army of the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert, Turkey. The Muslims go on to conquer Palestine (now Israel). Turkish Muslims begin to attack Christians on pilgrimages to holy places

the Turks capture Jerusalem
 1071

 1072

William invades Scotland and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake.  1072

 1073

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Hildebrand becomes pope Gregory VII and launches the "Gregorian" reform (celibacy of the clergy primacy of the papacy over the empire infallibility of the Church
 1073

 1075

The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is built the third most popoular pilgrimage site after Jerusalem and Rome  1075

 1076

1076-1122 Investiture Controversy

Heinrich IV refuses and Gregory VII excommunicates and deposes him but then forgives him at Canossa (abbot Hugh of Cluny acts as mediator)
 1076

 1080

William in a letter reminds the bishop of Rome that the King of England owes him no allegiance  1080

 1084

Bruno founds the Carthusian order at the Grande Chartreuse near Grenoble  1084

 1085

Heinrich IV invades Italy and drives Pope Gregory VII out of Rome and the Pope dies in exile prisoner of the Normans who have repelled the Germans but also sacked Rome  1085

 1086

Alfonso I of Castile conquers Toledo  1086

 1088

A monk of Cluny is elected Pope Urban II  1088

 1093

Henry of Burgundy (Bourgogne) comes to the aid of Castile (Spain) when it is invaded by Moors and becomes Count of Portugal

Anselm becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 1093

 1095

1095-1291: Holy Wars - The 7 Crusades

Pope Urban II responding to an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexios Komnenos calls for a Crusade against the Muslims
 1095

 1096

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

1096-1099 First Crusade,defeats Seljuks,recaptures Jerusalem

Jews are persecuted by the Crusaders
 1096

 1098

The Crusaders capture Antioch  1098

 1099

(June): After a perilous overland journey that takes nearly three years, the Crusaders reach the outskirts of Jerusalem

Fall of Jerusalem

Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon capture Jerusalem

Vallombrosa monk Raniero becomes Pope Paschal II
 1099

 1100

1100-1300: Construction of the Chartres Cathedral in France

England's king Henry I fights with Pope Pasquale II on the issue of lay investiture (the king elects the bishops
 1100

 1103

The Danish king Erik Ejegod (Erik I) obtains that Lund become the archiepiscopal see for the whole of Scandinavia  1103

 1107

The Concordat of London finds a compromise between England's king Henry I and Pope Pasquale II on the issue of lay investiture (the king elects the bishops  1107

 1108

1108-37: Louis VI, King of France, consolidates royal power  1108

 1111

Paschal II resolves the conflict between Church and Empire by renouncing all of the Church's earthly possessions and by embracing apostolic poverty  1111

 1113

The Pope recognizes the Hospital of Saint John as separate monastic order (the Hospitallers) with headquarters in Acre  1113

 1115

Bernard of Clairvaux founds a Cistercian monastery at Clairvaux and begins a campaign against Cluny  1115

 1118

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Paschal II dies
 1118

 1119

The Crusaders set up new Christian states in the Holy land. The new orders of knights, Templars and the Hospitalers, are founded. These knights are also monks. They defend the Crusaders' states against Muslim attacks and protect Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land  1119

 1122

Pope Calixtus II and German emperor Heinrich V sign the Concordat of Worms that resolves the "investiture controversy" by granting the emperor veto power over the German Church  1122

 1123

Lateran Council I  1123

 1137

Benedictine monk Suger builds the cathedral of Saint-Denis in a new style the gothic style  1137

 1139

Alfonso of Portugal declares Portugal independent from Leon and Castile  1139

 1141

The philospher Pierre Abelard is condemned as heretic and is books are burned for his views on the Trinity and his love for Heloise  1141

 1142

Some Crusaders settle in the Holy Land. They begin constructing Krak des Chevaliers (Castle of the Knights) in Syria. The underground storerooms of this magnificent castle contain enough supplies of food and arms to withstand a five-year siege  1142

 1143

Treat of Zamora, Leon recognizes Portugal's independence  1143

 1144

Later Crusades were the result of setbacks, like the fall of Edessa in 1144 and, much worse, the loss of Jerusalem in 1187.
The Popes began to labor constantly to put together forces that could recover the Christian position in Outremer.

The Third Crusade was the most powerful and direct, but it fell short. Much, much worse was the Fourth Crusade, which was redirected by the Doge of Venice, Enrico Dandolo, to the purposes of Venice. Pope Innocent III first had to excommunicate everyone for the use of the army in Dalmatia, and then the Venicians took it, not to Palestine, but to Constantinople.
This could be seen as undoing the Schism between the Chruches, since now there was a Latin Emperor and Latin Patriarch in Romania, but it didn't accomplish the real purpose. Nor did it last long.

Bernard of Clairvaux calls for a second Crusade to rescue the besieged Latin kingdom of Jerusalem and Louis VII of France and Konrad III of Germany join the crusaders but they are defeated by the Muslims
 1144

 1145

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Almohads take over Muslim Spain
 1145

 1146

1146-48: Second Crusade, Louis VII on the crusade  1146

 1147

1147-1149 Second Crusade

Jews are persecuted by the Crusaders
 1147

 1152

Pope annuls marriage between Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine  1152

 1154

Henry II of Anjou marries Eleanor of Aquitaine and England begins to form the Angevin Empire in France  1154

 1159

French theologian John of Salisbury publishes the "Policraticus first doctrine of the separation of church and state but with the state subordinate to the church  1159

 1160

Alexander III excommunicates Friedrich I "Barbarossa  1160

 1162

Friedrich I "Barbarossa" raids Rome and Milan  1162

 1164

Sweden obtains an archbishop  1164

 1165

Thomas Becket named Archbishop of Centerbury Cathedral, head of the church of England  1165

 1168

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

A Spaniard is elected pope Calixtus III
 1168

 1170

Henry II's men murder Thomas Becket  1170

 1177

Barbarossa recognizes Alexander III as Pope and is forgiven  1177

 1179

Lateran Council III

Pope recognizes Portugal's independence
 1179

 1180

1180-1223: Philip II Augustus reigns in France

the Jewish philosopher Maimonides attempts to bridge the Talmud and Aristotle in the "Guide for the Perplexed
 1180

 1181

The Muslim warrior Saladin becomes Sultan of Egypt. He is a brilliant military commander who unites the Muslim army  1181

 1184

Pope Lucius III excommunicates Peter Waldo founder of the anti-Cluniac ascetic Waldensians ("poor men of Lyons")  1184

 1185

1185-1211: Sancho I reigns in Portugal  1185

 1186

The Vlachs rebel against the Byzantine Empire. Foundation of the Bulgaro-Vlach Empire  1186

 1187

Saladin crushes the crusaders armies at Hittin

Jerusalem falls to the Muslims

Saladdin retakes Jerusalem
 1187

 1189

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

1189-1192 Third Crusade


the third Crusade is led by King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England king Philip Augustus II of France and emperor Frederick Barbarossa
 1189

 1190

The Teutonic Knights are founded by German lords to fight in the crusade establish their capital at Acre and adopt the Templars' white mantle and the Hospitallers' rule  1190

 1191

Richard I conquers Cyprus and captures the city of Acre  1191

 1192

Richard I captures Jaffa makes peace with Saladin; on the way home he is captured by his enemy Duke Leopold of Austria  1192

 1194

Richard is ransomed and returned to England  1194

 1195

The Tale of Robin Hood is said to have taken place during these times when Richard was imprisoned after having left on the Third Crusade and John ruled in his stead.  1195

 1198

Cardinal Lothario Conti is elected pope Innocent III  1198

 1199

1199-1204: Fourth Crusade

Philip II of France begins military conquest of British Normandy and Anjou
 1199

 1200

The Jews are expelled from England  1200

 1202

1202-1204 Fourth Crusade;
Constantinople taken by Crusaders in employ of Venice, first break in line of Roman (Rhomaic/Byzantine) Emperors
 1202

 1204

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Fourth Crusade
Fall of Constantinople to the Latins.
The armies of the Fourth Crusade never reach the Holy Land. Instead, they raid Constantinople, capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire. The Crusaders pillage the city and put its inhabitants to the sword

the Crusaders led by Venezia sack Constantinople
 1204

 1206

Francis of Assisi gives up his wealth and adopts a life of absolute poverty  1206

 1208

1208-1261 Patriarchate at Nicaea

pope Innocent III launches a crusade against the Catharist/Albigensian and the Waldensian heretics
 1208

 1209

London Bridge built: Peace between England and Scotland

1209-1229 Albigensian Crusade

Cambridge University is founded in England; Innocent III excommunicates John for attacks on Church property
 1209

 1210

The Pope recognizes the Franciscan order of mendicant friars  1210

 1212

Christians defeat Almohad Muslims at Las Navas de Tolosa, Almohads expelled from Spain shortly after and Christian reconquest continues

the Jews of Toledo are massacred by the Crusaders
 1212

 1214

Philip II of France defeats the combined armies of the Holy Roman Empire and England at the Battle of Bouvines  1214

 1215

King John forced to sign the Magna Carta

Lateran Council IV

the Dominican order of mendicant friars is founded in Languedoc

the fourth Lateran council defines the seven sacraments (in particular marriage and confession) and prescribes that Jews be confined in ghettos
 1215

 1216

Innocent III dies  1216

 1217

1217-1221: The Fifth Crusade

Emperor Friederich II grants lands to the Teutonic Knights in Sicily
 1217

 1219

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Francis of Assisi preaches to the sultan of Egypt
 1219

 1223

Genghis Khan invades Russia  1223

 1226

Emperor Friederich II grants the Teutonic Knights authority to restore order name in Prussia  1226

 1227

Count Ugolino is elected pope Gregory IX  1227

 1228

1228-29: The Sixth Crusade, led by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, reoccupies Jerusalem as part of a temporary peace treaty with the Muslims.  1228

 1233

Spanish Inquisition begins

Gregory IX institutes the Inquisition whose courts are mainly run by the Dominican monks

pope Gregory IX issues a mandate for Inquisition against the heretics
 1233

 1238

Valencia is reconquered  1238

 1240

Mongols take Kiev  1240

 1241

The great Tartar invasion in Central Europe
Mongols defeat Germans at Silesia, and invade Poland and Hungary
 1241

 1248

1248-1254 Sixth Crusade,
St. Louis IX of France, got no further than Tunisia
The crusade ends in disaster with the capture and imprisonment of Louis

1248-1279 Alfonso III reigns in Portugal and moves capital to Lisbon

Sevilla is reconquered by Ferdinand III
 1248

 1250

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Eusebius of Esztergom founds the Order of St Paul the First Hermit ("Pauline monks") by uniting all the hermits who lived in the forests of Hungary and Croatia
 1250

 1252

Pope Innocent IV issues a papal bull that approves torture against heretics  1252

 1254

Marco Polo (1254-1324) is born  1254

 1261

Recovery of Constantinople from its Latin conquerors by the Byzantine Emperor Michael Paleologos

Patriarchate at Constantinople
 1261

 1264

The Dominican monk Thomas Aquinas publishes the "Summa Contra Gentiles that reconciles science and religion  1264

 1269

Rebuilding of Westminster Abbey begun by Henry III  1269

 1271

Marco Polo travels to China 1271-1295  1271

 1272

William Wallace (1272-1305)

Scottish national hero. Son of a small landowner, he began his attacks on English settlements and garrisons in 1297, after Edward I declared himself ruler of Scotland. His army defeated a much larger English force at Stirling Bridge, captured Stirling Castle, and then ravaged N England, for which Wallace was knighted and proclaimed guardian of the Scottish kingdom. In 1298 Edward I invaded Scotland and defeated Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk. Disgraced, Wallace resigned his guardianship and was replaced by the future Robert I, but apparently continued to fight a guerrilla war. In 1305 he was arrested by the English and hanged, then disemboweled, beheaded, and quartered. The next year Robert raised the rebellion that eventually won independence for Scotland.
 1272

 1273

Rudolph I becomes the first Habsburg ruler of Austria  1273

 1274

Council of Lyon II  1274

 1282

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

1282-84: Edward I of England defeats Wales
 1282

 1283

Jews are massacred in Germany  1283

 1286

Alexander III, King of Scotland dies while travelling to meet his new bride, Yolande de Dreux, near Kinghorn in Fife. Scottish nobles gather at Scone to elect six Guardians who will act as a provisional government, The Community of the Realm of Scotland. The Guardians will work to protect Scotland in the name of Alexander's only surviving relative, his three-year-old granddaughter, Margaret, the Maid of Norway and Scotland's Queen-in-waiting.  1286

 1290

The Teutonic Knights conquer all of Prussia  1290

 1291

Edward I bullies Scottish lords and nobles into recognising him as the supreme overlord of Scotland. Custody of Scotland, together with its castles and their possessions, are handed over to the English king. Court of Claims to the Scottish throne begins in Berwick.

The Muslims capture the city of Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. This action sees the end of the Crusades

defeated by the Muslims at Acre Hospitallers and Templars move their headquarters from Acre to Cyprus and Teutonic Knights move their headquarters from Acre to Venice

the Moslems expel the Crusaders from the Middle East
 1291

 1292

John Balliol is named as the new King of Scotland and is enthroned at Scone on St Andrew's Day.  1292

 1294

Edward I declares war on France. King John and his Scottish nobles refuse to fight the French on the side of the English - they are soon joined in revolt by the Welsh.

England and Portugal sign a commercial treaty which begins a long friendly relationship between the two

Most exaggerated claims for the mediaeval Papacy; humiliated byPhilip the Fair of France

the hermit Pope Celestine V abdicates after a few months
 1294

 1295

Edward I summons the Model Parliament  1295

 1296

Scots rebel against Edward I of England. War begins between England and Scotland. English army massacre civilians at Berwick and Scots retaliate by doing the same throughout Northumberland. The English army marches north and takes Dunbar, Roxburgh, Jedburgh, Edinburgh, Stirling and Montrose. Edward takes the Stone of Destiny from Scone, then moves back south to Berwick to take the oaths of loyalty from over 2000 Scottish nobles (the Ragman Roll).  1296

 1297

Scots rebel against Edward I of England. William Wallace kills the Sheriff of Lanark and joins a campaign supported by the Bishop of Glasgow, Robert Wishart, to drive English sheriffs from Scotland. Wallace gathers a small peasant army to chase Edward's justiciar, William Ormesby, from Scone Abbey. Wallace defeats the English Garrison in Glasgow at the Battle of the Bell o' the Brae. The Scottish nobles gather at Irvine, but are forced to surrender to an army of English knights. Wallace is joined by the army of Andrew Murray, who has successfully reclaimed the north-east from the English. The army of Wallace and Murray rout a vastly superior English army at Stirling Bridge.  1297

 1298

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

William Wallace is knighted and appointed Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland. Edward I invades Scotland with a powerful army, made up predominantly of Irish and Welsh infantry. The Scottish army are defeated at the Battle of Falkirk. Wallace steps down as Guardian of Scotland, to be replaced by Robert Bruce and John Comyn.
 1298

 1299

Ottoman Empire founded in Turkey  1299

 1300

Bruce resigns as joint Guardian of Scotland and is replaced Ingram de Umfraville, a kinsman of King John, and ally of Comyn. England invades Scotland and refuse a personal demand from John Comyn to restore King John and give up Scottish lands. Continued diplomatic pressure from France and Rome (where Wallace was acting as an envoy) forces Edward to sign a truce and promise to release the Bishop of Glasgow from his English prison.

Boniface VIII announces the first Jubilee Year during which special indulgences are granted
 1300

 1302

The Pope overrides the English terms of King John's release and hands him over to the French. Wallace returns from France with news of possible assistance from King Philip IV. Robert Bruce, fearing a return by King John would mean transfer of power to his enemy, John Comyn, defects to Edward. The French are defeated by a Flemish peasant army at Courtrai.  1302

 1303

Wallace, Comyn and Simon Fraser continue to struggle against English occupation and defeat an English expeditionary force at Roslin, near Edinburgh. Edward invades again with a full-strength force, after having signed a peace treaty with a much-weakened France. Wallace gains financial support from Bishop Wishart of Glasgow to continue the struggle.  1303

 1304

Wallace's small force is defeated by an army of English knights at Happrew, near Peebles. Wallace survives, but becomes a fugitive. Edward lays siege to Stirling Castle, the last major fortification to resist Edward's army.  1304

 1305

Philip IV of France secures the election of a French Pope, Clement V, who moved the Papal court from Rome to Avignon, France in 1309

William Wallace is betrayed and captured by John Menteith while visiting Glasgow to meet with Robert Bruce. Wallace is arrested in Scottland by the English taken to London for a trial and was subsequently hanged, drawn, and quartered at Smithfield.

the French archbishop of Bordeaux becomes pope Clement V and moves the papacy to Avignon in France the peak of France's influence over the papacy
 1305

 1306

New Scottish rebellion against English rule led by Robert Bruce. Robert I the Bruce crowned King of Scotland (to 1329) at Scone

The Jews are expelled from France
 1306

 1307

Edward I dies on march north to crush Robert Bruce. Edward II King of England (to 1327)  1307

 1309

Papacy moves to Avignon, 1309; lines of Popes reside at Avignon, Rome, and Pisa during the Babylonia Captivity (1309-1377) and the Great Schism (1378-1417).

the Teutonic Knights move their capital from Venice to Prussia and establishes a theocratic state

the Hospitallers conquer the island of Rhodes and move their capital there establishing an ecclesiastical principality under the eastern Roman empire
 1309

 1311

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

1311-1312 Council of Vienne
 1311

 1312

Order of Knights Templar abolished. The Hospitallers are awarded the Templars' possessions in western Europe Cyprus and Greece  1312

 1313

Pope Clement V abolishes the order of the Knights Templar after drumming up false accusations for the purpose of seizing their wealthy assetts with the help of French king Philippe IV  1313

 1314

Battle of Bannockburn: Robert Bruce defeats Edward II and makes Scotland independent

Last Templars Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, tortured & burned by Philip IV of France.

Jacques de Molay the grand master of the Templars is burned at the stake in Paris
 1314

 1321

Franciscan monk William of Occam is excommunicated for preaching that the Church should not own properties  1321

 1323

The Church condemns Paschal II's apostolic poverty as heresy  1323

 1324

Marco Polo dies

Franciscan monk Marsilio da Padova publishes "Defender Of Peace in which he argues that the Church has not authority over secular affairs and that the purpose of a state is to guarantee peace
 1324

 1325

Beginning of the Renaissance in Italy
Peak of the Muslim Empire in Spain
Small cannon begins use
 1325

 1327

1327-77: Edward III rules in England and is the rival of Philip VI of Valois

German emperor Ludwig IV invades Italy and appoints pope John XXII
 1327

 1328

1328-50: Philip VI of Valois rules in France and the Valois dynsaty is founded as a runoff of the Capetian dynsaty

English win a major naval battle against the French at Sluis, in the Netherlands
 1328

 1336

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Jews are massacred in Germany
 1336

 1337

Hundred Years War between England and France begun when the French under Philip VI of Valois invades English Gascony  1337

 1338

England allies with the Holy Roman Empire  1338

 1340

Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War: England wins many victories and wins control of most of southwestern France

Alfonso XI of Castile wins major victory over the Moors at the Battle of the Salado River English win a major naval battle against the French at Sluis, in the Netherlands
 1340

 1346

First land battle of the Hundred Years War: Battle of Crecy won by the English  1346

 1347

The English capture Calais

1347-51: The Black plague: 25 million dead

the "black death" (the plague) causes the decline of monasticism
 1347

 1350

Sergius of Radonezh founds the Monastery of the Holy Trinity (at Sergiev Posad the new center of Russian christianity  1350

 1356

Battle of Poitiers won decisively by the English led by Edward the Black Prince, French King John II taken prisoner  1356

 1360

Peace of Bretigny signed by the French and English forces the French to cede all of Aquitaine to the English  1360

 1364

King Charles V rules in France: leads the French in the Caroline phase of the Hundred Years' War  1364

 1369

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

1369-72: Ottomans conquer Bulgaria

1369-89: Caroline Phase of the Hundred Years' War: French oppose the English but only partial victory is acheived and they expel the English from much of France
 1369

 1372

A Castilian (Spanish) fleet defeats the English fleet off La Rochelle  1372

 1376

The Good Parliament in England called by Edward the Black Prince introduces many reforms of government; Death of Edward the Black Prince aged 45; The Civil Dominion of John Wyclif an Oxford don calling for Church reforms  1376

 1377

The French launch an offensive against the English that supported by their navy that leaves the English with only a few coastal areas; the French and Castilian navies begin to attack the British shoreline and the English are forced to take the offensive

pope Gregory XI moves back the papacy to Rome from Avignon
 1377

 1378

1378-1417: The Great Schism: Popes fight for control of the Roman Catholic Church in Avignon, France and Rome, Italy

pope Gregory XI dies and the Roman nobles elect Bartolomeo Prignano as pope Urban VI

the Oxford theologian John Wycliffe preaches that the Church has fallen into sin that it ought to give up all its property and that the clergy should live in complete poverty
 1378

 1380

1380-1422: At the same time as the Great Schism, the French King Charles VI rules in France

c. 1380 John Wycliffe (c. 1320 - 1384), an English priest, begins the first English translation of the Bible.
 1380

 1385

House of Aviz formed by John I who succeeded the Portugese throne after 2 years of civil war, during his reign the Portugese carved a huge colonial empire; John I defeats Castile at the Battle of Ajubarrota

Lithuania converts to christianity as is unified with Poland
 1385

 1386

Permanent alliance between England and Portugal at the Treaty of Windsor  1386

 1389

Caroline Phase of the Hundred Years' War ends with France's partial sucess

the Serbs are defeated by Ottoman Turks of Sultan Murad I
 1389

 1391

The Jews of Iberia are forced to convert  1391

 1392

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Charles VI of France attacked by mental illness: Philip the Bold of Burgundy seizes French power
 1392

 1396

Philip the Bold of France signs a new and longer truce with England

the English translation of the Bible begun by John Wycliffe is completed (the "Wycliffe" Bible) but is declared heretic by the Church (the "Vulgate" being the only authorized version)
 1396

 1397

Kalmar Agreement unites Denmark, Norway and Sweden  1397

 1399

Richard II of England overthrown by his cousin Henry IV of Lancaster  1399

 1404

Philip the Bold of Burgundy dies and is succeeded by his son John the Fearless in Burgundy

Battle of Formigny won by French due to artillery and Normandy falls to the French shortly after

English defeated by the French at the Battle of Castillon and the English lose Aquitaine; English expelled from France except for Port Calais and the war ends

Isabella of Spain convokes a great Cortes (Parliament) in Toledo

Ottoman Turks annex Hungary

Ottoman Turks make peace with Persia
 1404

 1407

John the Fearless of Burgundy plunges France into civil war  1407

 1409

Council of Pisa,adds third Pope at Pisa  1409

 1410

the Teutonic Knights are defeated by Jagiello's Polish-Lithuanian army at the battle of Tannenberg  1410

 1412

St. Joan of Arc, Born at Domremy in Champagne, probably on 6 January, 1412; Burnt at the stake at Rouen, 30 May, 1431.  1412

 1414

1414-1418 Council of Constance, called by Emperor Sigismund, Papal interregnum 1415-1417, resolves Great Schism, but principle of Council is threat to Papal authority  1414

 1415

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Battle of Agincourt won by King Henry V of the English; Portugese advance in Morocco successful after the capture of Ceuta

1415-35: The Lancastrian Phase of the Hundred Years' War: The English have inital success with an alliance with Burgundy, but the French halt the English advance

the heretic Jan Hus is burned at the stake at Constance for opposing the sale of indulgences and claiming that the Church is a human invention
 1415

 1417

English begin conquest of Normandy

the Western Schism ends at the council of Constance with the election of Martin V
 1417

 1418

John the Fearless of Burgundy occupies London

1418-60: Portugal sponsers the exploration of the African coastline
 1418

 1420

English capture Paris and the French are forced to sign the Treaty of Troyes which disinherited the dauphin made Henry V of England became the new heir to the French throne  1420

 1422

Henry V dies in England
Charles the dauphin of France is named Charles VII after his father Charles VI dies and begins to fight in southern and central France against the English and reigns until 1461
 1422

 1423

German Civil War

1423-29: French and Scots wage war with English
 1423

 1424

English Duke of Bedford defeats the French at the battle of Verneuil  1424

 1427

Portugal discovers the Azores  1427

 1428

English besiege Orleans  1428

 1429

English advance in France halted

A French force led by military commander Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc) relieves the siege of Orleans; Charles VII crowned king of France at Rheims , deep in English teritory
 1429

 1430

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Burgundians hand over Joan of Arc to the English and she is executed the next year
 1430

 1431

1431-1445 Council of Basil.

St. Joan of Arc, Burnt at the stake at Rouen, 30 May, 1431.
 1431

 1435

Burgundy changes allegiance from England to France: English forces seriously overextended, and the English are evtually driven from France  1435

 1436

French regain Paris  1436

 1437

James I of the Scots assassinated  1437

 1439

Council at Ferrara & Florence, 1439-1440, attended by John VIII Palaeologus.

Emperor John VIII, hoping for Western military aid against the Turks, travels to Italy and negotiates a reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches at the Council of Florence. When he returns East, leaders of the Greek Orthodox Church refuse to accept the reunion.

Treaty between Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church
 1439

 1440

1440-93: Frederick III rules the Holy Roman Empire  1440

 1441

Second Ottoman siege of Constantinople  1441

 1444

Treaty of Tours: five-year peace with England and France; Portugal sails as far as Cape Verde  1444

 1448

Renaissance begins

Prince Basil II of Russia imprisons Bishop Isidore of Moscow, a Greek, for accepting the reunion of Florence. The Russian Orthodox Church declares its organizational independence from Constantinople and elects the first native-born Russian bishop, Jonas I.
 1448

 1449

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

France at war with England, recovers Normandy
 1449

 1450

Florence becomes the centre of the Renaissance

Battle of Formigny won by French due to artillery and Normandy falls to the French shortly after
 1450

 1452

Leonardo DaVinci, the quintessential Renaissance man of enduring genius born in the Tuscan village of Vinci.
 1452

 1453

Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans under Mehmet II.
Last Byzantine Emperor Constantine Paleologos dies during final assult on the City.
Ottomans change its name to Istanbul, which is the phonetic pronunciation in Greek of ³To The City² (ees-teen-poli).

End of the Byzantine Empire


1453-1455 Patriarchaye at Church of the Holy Apostles

English defeated by the French at the Battle of Castillon and the English lose Aquitaine; English expelled from France except for Port Calais and the 100-year war ends.
 1453

 1455

1455-1587
Patriarchate at Convent of St. Mary Pammakaristos

1455-85: English Wars of the Roses
 1455

 1456

Ottomans capture Athens

1456-1462: Reign of Vlad the Impaler.
 1456

 1460

Portugese reach Sierra Leone  1460

 1461

Last piece of Romania, the fortress of Monemvasia, ceded by theDespot Thomas.  1461

 1462

1462-1505: Ivan the Great rules as the first czar in Russia, ends tribute payed to the Mongols

Vlad IV of Walachia is defeated by Ottoman Sultan Muhammad II
 1462

 1466

Kazimierz IV's Polish army defeats the Teutonic Knights and annexes western Prussia to Poland  1466

 1469

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile marry to form a united Spain
 1469

 1473

Nicolaus Copernicus Born: 19 Feb 1473 in Torun, Poland  1473

 1478

Sixtus IV authorizes the Spanish Inquisition

Ottomans conquer Albania
 1478

 1480

Mongols driven from Russia

Isabella of Spain convokes a great Cortes (Parliament) in Toledo
 1480

 1484

Pope Innocent VIII orders the persecution of witches  1484

 1485

Henry VII becomes first Tudor King of England  1485

 1486

Pico della Mirandola a student of the Kabbalah tries to reconcile all religions and philosophies  1486

 1487

Battle of Stoke Field: In final engagement of the Wars of the Roses Henry VII defeats Yorkist army "led" by Lambert Simnel (who was impersonating Edward the nephew of Edward IV the only plausible royal alternative to Henry who was confined in the Tower of London).  1487

 1492

Christopher Colombus sails west in search of the Indies.
Disvovery of the Americas.
The New World



Moors driven from their last stronghold in Granada
Granada is reconquered by the Christians

Treaty of Etaples signed by England and France which settled their outstanding difference

pope Alexander VI and his son Cesare Borgia become famous for their cruelty

Jews and Muslims are expelled from Spain
 1492

 1493

1493-96: Columbus's second voyage  1493

 1494

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Treaty of Tordesillas gives Portugal territory in Brazil
 1494

 1495

1495-1521: Portugese power reaches it's height under King Emanuel, but at the end of his reign Portugal began to decline  1495

 1497

1497-99: Vasco da Gama makes first voyage to India

The Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola is excommunicated and hanged and burnt as an heretic

John Cabot discovers Newfoundland.
 1497

 1498

Columbus's Third Voyage  1498

 1500

European Jews divide into "Sephardim" (Spanish and Portuguese Jews) and "Askenazim" (German and Polish Jews  1500

 1501

First black slaves in America  1501

 1502

Portugese build colony in India

Columbus's Fourth Voyage
 1502

 1503

Giuliano Della Rovere is elected pope Julius II  1503

 1506

Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal

Pope Julius II decides to rebuild the Basilica of St Peter
 1506

 1509

the Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus publishes "The Praise of Folie which advocates a return to the moral values of early Christianity  1509

 1512

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

215 Julius II recovers by combat all of Papal States, 1512-1517;

Lateran Council V
 1512

 1513

Giovanni de' Medici is elected pope Leo X  1513

 1514

Leo X appoints Raphael chief architect of Saint Peter's Basilica  1514

 1516

1516-1917 Ottoman Empire rule

Charles I of Spain acsends the throne of Spain

a Jewish ghetto is instituted in Venezia

a Greek translation of the New Testament done by Erasmus (Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus) is printed
 1516

 1517

Reformation begins
The Protestant Reformation begins at Wittenberg when Martin Luther publishes his "95 Theses" against the Catholic practice of selling indulgences . Leo X dismissed Martin Luther
as "some drunken German," but Luther's movement not only shook Francia, it shattered it. A division something like the Great Schism happened again, but this time it was not over who would be Pope, but whether there would be a Pope at all.

Protestantism is born

Ottomans conquer Egypt and rule Arabia

the Ottoman empire conquers Jerusalem
 1517

 1519

Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigates the globe

Charles I of Spain chosen Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

Reformation in Switzerland
 1519

 1520

Luther excommunicated by Pope Leo X

Luther creates his German translation of the New Testament.

1520-1566: Height of the Ottoman Empire by Seleiman I
 1520

 1521

Ottoman Turks invade Hungary

1521-29: Spain at war with France

Henry VIII receives the title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther .
 1521

 1522

a Dutch is elected Adrian VI  1522

 1523

Giulio de' Medici is elected pope Clement VII  1523

 1525

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Peace between England and France made by Henry VIII

the grand master of the Teutonic Knights is appointed duke of Prussia
 1525

 1526

Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent destroys the Hungarain kingdom after the Battle of Mohacs.

Spain orders all ships to travel in groups due to pirates

Tyndale creates his English version of the Pentateuch.

Martin Luther prints his German translation of the Bible
 1526

 1527

Holy Roman Empire attacks Rome, imprisons Pope Clement VII- end of the Italian Renaissance, Sweden becomes Lutheran  1527

 1529

Henry VIII declares himself head of the English church, forcibly cuts the Anglican bishops off from communion with Rome, calls the Reformation Parliament, and marries Anne Boleyn.

The Anglican Church is born

Ottomans reach Vienna
 1529

 1530

1530s: Spanish discover silver and gold mines in the New World

defeated at Rhodes by the Turks the Hospitallers move to Malta under the king of Spain
 1530

 1532

Sir Thomas More resigns over the question of Henry VIII's divorce  1532

 1533

Spain conquers the Inca Empire in Peru

1533-37: Danish Civil War

1533-84: Reign of Ivan IV the Terrible

Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn and is excommunicated by Pope Clement VII; Thomas Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury
 1533

 1534

Henry VIII declares himself supreme head of the Church of England  1534

 1535

1535-38: Ferdinand's second Spanish-French War

Spain attacks Tunis

Sir Thomas More is beheaded in Tower of London for failing to take the Oath of Supremacy
 1535

 1536

Reformation reaches Norway and Denmark

William Tyndale is burned at the stake for translating the Bible into English

Anne Boleyn is beheaded; Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour; dissolution of monasteries in England begins under the direction of Thomas Cromwell completed in 1539.
 1536

 1537

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Jane Seymour dies after the birth of a son the future Edward VI
 1537

 1540

Ignatius of Loyola founds the Society of Jesus (Jesuits which believes in free will and in salvation through good deeds (not just faith)

Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves following negotiations by Thomas Cromwell; Henry divorces Anne of Cleves and marries Catherine Howard; Thomas Cromwell executed on charge of treason.
 1540

 1541

Reformation in Scotland, establishes the Presbyterian Church

Spain attacks Algiers

Ottoman Turks annex Hungary
 1541

 1542

1542-44: Ferdinand's third Spanish-French War

Catherine Howard is executed
 1542

 1543

Nicolaus Copernicus publishes De Revolutionibus with dedication to the Pope, dies.

Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr; alliance between Henry and Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) against Scotland and France
 1543

 1545

1545-1563 Council of Trent
19th Ecumenical Council

1545-1650: French Wars of Religion
 1545

 1547

Ivan IV "The Terrible" becomes Czar of Russia

the Pope convenes the first Council of Trento in response to the Protestant Reformation ("counter-reformation
 1547

 1549

The Catholic missionary Frances Xavier reaches Japan  1549

 1551

1551-59: Ferdinand's fourth Spanish-French War, treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis ends wars between Spain and France and Spain becomes the dominant power in Italy

Archbishop Cranmer publishes Forty-two Articles of religion.
 1551

 1553

Edward VI dies, Queen (Bloody) Mary I succeeds him, restores the Catholic Church to England

Ottoman Turks make peace with Persia
 1553

 1554

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Execution of Lady Jane Grey
 1554

 1556

Phillip II ascends the Spanish throne

1556-1598: Reign of Phillip II of Spain
 1556

 1557

France declares bankruptcy  1557

 1558

Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England, restores Protestant Church

English lose Port Calais to France
 1558

 1559

French and Habsburgs sign the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, ending Spain's wars with France

1559-1598: French Wars of Religion
 1559

 1560

Madrid made capital of Spain

Ottoman Turks destroy Spanish fleet

The Geneva Bible is created. This version is the one used by Shakespeare and also by the Pilgrims who came to the United States on the Mayflower.

Treaty of Berwick between Elizabeth I and Scottish reformers; Treaty of Edinburgh among England France and Scotland
 1560

 1561

Edict of Orleans ends persecution Huguenots in France  1561

 1563

The Thirty-nine Articles which complete establishment of the Anglican Church  1563

 1564

Ivan IV battles the Boyars (nobles) for power in Russia

William Shakespeare born.

Michelangelo builds the dome of St. Peter's Church in Rome
 1564

 1567

Joseph Karo/Caro publishes the "Shulhan Aruk the code of Jewish law

Murder of Lord Darnley husband of Mary Queen of Scots probably by Earl of Bothwell; Mary Queen of Scots marries Bothwell is imprisoned and forced to abdicate; James VI King of Scotland
 1567

 1568

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

The political divisions of the Reformation were settled by war.
Protestant Netherlands, revolts against Catholic Spain

Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England and is imprisoned by Elizabeth I at Fotheringay Castle.
 1568

 1570

Spanish and Italian fleets defeat Turkey at the Battle of Lepanto  1570

 1571

Tatars invade and burn Moscow  1571

 1572

Peace of Constantinople ends Turkish attacks on Europe

Tycho Brahe observes supernova, demonstrates lack of parallax, becomes famous
 1572

 1574

1574-76: Fifth Huguenot War in France  1574

 1576

Spanish troops sack Antwerp  1576

 1577

Alliance between England and Netherlands; Francis Drake sails around the world (to 1580 )  1577

 1578

1578-1655: Spain rules Portugal  1578

 1580

1580-1640: House of Aviz ends, Sixty Years' Captivity of Portugal by Spain  1580

 1581

Russians settle Siberia  1581

 1582

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

5/15 October 1582
Gregorian Calendar instituted

The Geneva Bible is created. This version is the one used by Shakespeare and also by the Pilgrims who came to the United States on the Mayflower.

Pope Gregory XIII institutes the Gregorian Calendar
 1582

 1584

William of Orange assassinated  1584

 1586

1587-1597
Patriarchate at Palace of the Wallachians, Vlach Saray
 1586

 1587

Mary, Queen of the Scots, is executed

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, was born on December 8, 1542. She was well known for her beauty, her wit, her learning, and her misfortunes. She was the daughter of James V of Scotland by Marie of Lorraine, a French princess of the family of Guise. Her father died a few days after her birth, and on September 9, 1543, she was crowned queen of Scotland.

In 1548 she was pledged in marriage to Francis, Dauphin of France, son of Henry II and Catharine de'Medic, and in the same year she was brought to France to be educated at the French court. When she grew up she added to a striking and fascinating personal beauty all the accomplishments and charms which a perfect education can give.

Her marriage with the dauphin was celebrated April 24, 1558, in the Church of Notre Dame, and when Mary I of England died in the same year, she opposed the crowning of Elizabeth I.

On July 10, 1559, Henry Ii died and was succeeded by Francis II. Mary thus became Queen of France, but Francis died December 5, 1560. She was childless and had littlepower at court, where the influence of Catharine de'Medici was now paramount. In the same year her mother died, and she then returned to Scotland.

Brought up a Roman Catholic and used to the carefree life of the French court, she found the dominant Protestantism of Scotland and the austere manners of her subjects almost intolerable. Nevertheless, the first period of her reign was fairly successful; and she strove to placate the Protestants. The Protestants, however, were soon estranged by her unfortunate marriage with her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, a Catholic, who on February 9, 1567, was blown up by gunpowder as the result of a treacherous plot he himself inspired. Three months later Mary married Earl of Bothwell, whom public opinion accused of the murder of Darnley.

From this time a series of misfortunes struck the queen and a general revolutionary uprising took place. In the battle of Carberry Hill, Bothwell was defeated and fled, and Mary was confined in Lochleven Castle and compelled to abdicate. She escaped with her life and fled to England. Here she was immediately imprisoned, first at Carlisle, afterwards in various other places, and last in Fotheringay Castle. She was imprisoned for 18 years and finally beheaded by Elizabeth on October 25, 1586.

Sixtus V creates Congregation of the Holy Roman and Universal Inquisition or Holy Office

1587-1616: William Shakespeare's productive years
 1587

 1588

1588: 1588: Spanish Empire at it's height consists of most of South America, Central America, Mexico, Florida, Cuba and the Phillipines

Defeat of Spanish Armada, turning point of the Spanish Empire
 1588

 1589

1589-1610: "Good King Henry" or Henry IV of France reigns as one of France's most beloved kings

Patriarch Jeremias II of Constantinople raises Metropolitan Job of Moscow to the rank of Patriarch of Moscow and of All Russia, making him the head of the largest Orthodox church. Moscow would come to be called "the Third Rome."
 1589

 1593

Henry IV of France publically converts to Catholicism  1593

 1594

Henry IV crowned King of France at Chartres Cathedral and establishes the Bourbon dynasty and basically ends the French wars of religion  1594

 1596

At the Union of Brest-Litovsk, several million Ukrainian and Byelorussian Orthodox Christians, living under Polish rule, leave the Russian Orthodox Church and recognize the Pope of Rome, without giving up their Byzantine liturgy and customs. This was the beginning of what is variously known as the Uniate, Eastern Rite Catholic, or Greek Catholic Church.  1596

 1597

Irish rebellion under Hugh O'Neill Earl of Tyrone (finally put down 1601)

1597-1599
Patriarchate at St. Demetrius Monastery at Xyloporta
 1597

 1598

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Treaty of Nantes ends French civil war between Protestants and Catholics, and Spanish troops expelled from France Boris Godunov becomes Czar of Russia
 1598

 1600

Johannes Kepler, 29, meets Tycho, 53, in Prague

Elizabeth I grants charter to East India Company

Patriarchate at Church of St. George, Phanar Quarter

the philosopher Giordano Bruno is executed as an heretic in Rome for claiming that the universe is infinite
 1600

 1601

Elizabethan Poor Law charges the parishes with providing for the needy; Essex attempts rebellion and is executed  1601

 1602

1600-1608:William Shakespeare's period for great tragedies: Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth
 1602

 1603

Sir Walter Raleigh arrested, tried and imprisoned  1603

 1604

King James (1566-1625) of England commissions the "King James" translation of the Bible  1604

 1605

Gunpowder Plot; Guy Fawkes and other Roman Catholic conspirators fail in attempt to blow up Parliament and James I  1605

 1606

Rembrandt (1606-1669) born.  1606

 1607

Spain goes bankrupt; English found Jamestown

Dutch destroy Spanish fleet at Gibraltar
 1607

 1608

Polish army occupy Moscow and set up a puppet Samuel de Champlain establishes Quebec  1608

 1609

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Nine-year truce between Spain and Holland agreed

Samuel de Champlain founds French colony in Quebec

Catholic League formed to counter Protestant Union in Germany
 1609

 1610

Galileo publishes Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger or Message). Kepler defends it without having seen telescope

Hudson Bay discovered.
 1610

 1611

James I's authorized version (King James Version) of the Bible is completed; English and Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster

Gustavus Adolphus elected King of Sweden.
 1611

 1612

A Stock Exchange is founded in Amsterdam  1612

 1613

Russian National Assembly chooses Michael Romanov as the new tsar

Spanish invade the Bavarian Palatinate in Germany
 1613

 1614

James I dissolves the "Addled Parliament" which has failed to pass any legislation  1614

 1616

William Shakespeare dies  1616

 1618

1618-1648:Thirty Years' War between Catholics and Protestants: Protestants in Germany fight the Catholics for freedom, and are later supported by Denmark, Sweden and then France, the war devastates Germany

As the Spanish kept trying to defeat the Dutch since the 1568 revolt, the Emperor moved to suppress heresy in Bohemia.
After Imperial forces secured Bohemia and advanced in Germany, France began to subsidize opposition. This brought Sweden into the war; and after Swedish fortunes faded, France, a Catholic state, entered the war against the Catholic side. Spanish power was permanently weakened.
 1618

 1619

Kepler publishes Harmony of the World containing 3rd law

1619-1624:Dutch monopoly over Spice Trade in Indonesia
 1619

 1620

Imperial army commanded by Tilly routes Bohemians at White Mountain near Prague

Pilgrims aboard the "Mayflower" land first on Cape Cod near where Provincetown will later stand, then the next day land on the mainland and found the Plymoth Plantation. The first rock they step on coming of the ship is remembered as Plymouth Rock. The colony establishes a foothold in what will later become Massachusetts.
 1620

 1622

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Protestants defeat Tilly at Wiesloch in April

Moliere (1622-73) is born.
 1622

 1623

Publication of Shakespeare's First Folio  1623

 1624

Louis XIII chooses Cardinal Richelieu as his first minister  1624

 1625

1625-29: Danish phase of the Thirty Years' War: Christian IV of Denmark and Norway, supported by Lutheran and Calvinist princes, invades Saxony for mostly non-religious resasons, but is unsuccessful  1625

 1626

Dutch found New Amsterdam (New York

Saint Peter's Basilica is inaugurated in Rome
 1626

 1627

Christian IV of Denmark retreats into the Jutland peninsula

Edict of Restitution: Nullifies all Protestant lands in Catholic territory, total victory for the Imperial cause is noticed
 1627

 1628

Petition of Right; Charles I forced to accept Parliament's statement of civil rights in return for finances  1628

 1629

1629-32 Galileo publishes Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. Five months after publication it is banned and Galileo summoned to Rome. He goes. Kepler dies in 1630

Treaty of Lubeck deprives Denmark of territories in northern Germany
 1629

 1630

Third phase of the Thirty Years' War: Sweden invades northern Germany with the support of Protestants and France

Dutch colonists invade Brazil from the Portugese (occupied by Spain)

Swedish invade Pomerania under Gustav II Adolph

Holy Roman Empire seiges Magdeburg 1631: Imperial troops sack Magdeburg, Germany
 1630

 1633

Trial of Galileo Galilei
Galileo is convicted of heresy, confined to house arrest, forbidden to publish anything.
 1633

 1635

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Third and last phase of the Thirty Years' War
 1635

 1638

Louis XIV was born on September 5, 1638 of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria. Louis XIII died in 1643, and Anne aided by Cardinal Mazarin, ruled as regents in place of Louis XIV in France.  1638

 1640

Portugal becomes independent of Spain

English civil war between the Cavaliers (Loyalty) and Roundheads (Parliament)

Cardinal Richelieu dies
 1640

 1642

1642-43 Galileo dies. Isaac Newton is born.

French found Montreal

Charles I fails in attempt to arrest five members of Parliament and rejects Parliament's Nineteen Propositions; Civil War (until 1645) begins with battle of Edgehill between Cavaliers (Royalists) and Roundheads (Parliamentarians
 1642

 1643

Louis XIV becomes King of France and names Cardinal Mazarin as his first minister

Solemn League and Covenant is signed by Parliament .
 1643

 1645

Formation of Cromwell's New Model Army; Battle of Naseby; Charles I defeated by Parliamentary forces  1645

 1646

English colonize the Bahamas

Oliver Cromwell defeats the Royalists
Parliament demands reforms. Charles I surrenders to the Scots
 1646

 1648

The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 secured Dutch independence and the Protestant states in Germany. The Pope lost even theoretical and spiritual authority over most of Northern Europe.

200 000 Jews are slaughtered during the Russian invasion of Poland by Cossacks led by Bogdan Chmielnicki
 1648

 1649

England declared a Commonwealth. Charles I is tried and executed; The Commonwealth in which ; England is governed as a republic is established and lasts until 1660; Cromwell harshly suppresses Catholic rebellions in Ireland  1649

 1650

The Jews are expelled from Wien (Vienna)

Charles II lands in Scotland; is proclaimed king.
 1650

 1652

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

South Africa beginings:
The Dutch set up a mainland base for their East India Company (VOC), in what is now Cape Town, to provide passing ships with food, water and hospitalization for sick sailors.

1652-1654:1st Anglo-Dutch War

1652-8: Patriarch Nikon of Moscow revises liturgical books to bring them into conformity with the Greek Orthodox liturgy. Opponents of this reform were excommunicated from the Russian Orthodox Church and become known as Old Believers, which are now divided into several sects. These excommunications were rescinded in 1971.
 1652

 1653

Cromwell made Lord Protector  1653

 1655

England divided into 12 military districts by Cromwell; seizes Jamaica from Spain

1655-60: First Northern War against Sweden 1658: Cromwell dies, son Richard resigns, Puritan government collapses
 1655

 1656

War with Spain (until 1659)  1656

 1658

Oliver Cromwell dies; succeeded as Lord Protector by son Richard; Battle of the Dunes England and France defeat Spain; England gains Dunkirk  1658

 1659

Richard Cromwell forced to resign by the army; "Rump" Parliament restored  1659

 1660

Parliament asks for Charles II to become King, English Monarchy restored in 1661  1660

 1661

Louis XIV takes over French government  1661

 1662

Act of Uniformity passed in England  1662

 1663

Turks invade Hungary  1663

 1664

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

1664-65 Plague closes Cambridge. Newton goes to country, discovers laws of motion and gravity, explains orbits, invents calculus, makes discoveries in optics.

1664-1667: English seize New Amsterdam from the Dutch and rename it New York, 2nd Anglo-Dutch War
 1664

 1665

Great Plague in London

the Greek Jewish kabbalist Shabbatai Zvi is hailed as the messiah but then accepts to convert to Islam to save his life
 1665

 1666

Great Fire in London  1666

 1667

1667-68: Louis XIV of France makes war against Spain  1667

 1668

Triple Alliance of England Netherlands and Sweden against France  1668

 1672

1672-78: 3rd Anglo-Dutch War  1672

 1673

Moliere dies.  1673

 1674

Treaty of Westminster between England and the Netherlands  1674

 1679

Act of Habeas Corpus passed forbidding imprisonment without trial; Parliament's Bill of Exclusion against the Roman Catholic Duke of York blocked by Charles II; Parliament dismissed; Charles II rejects petitions calling for a new Parliament; petitioners become known as Whigs; their opponents (royalists) known as Tories  1679

 1682

Edmond Halley, with Newton's aid, has plotted orbits of comets. He shows that comet of 1682 is same as that of 1531 and 1607, predicts return in 1758.

Peter the Great becomes Tsar of Russia
 1682

 1683

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

1683-1750: British dominate Portugese trade 1685: Edict of Nantes revoked in France
 1683

 1686

German League of Augsburg formed against France  1686

 1687

Newton publishes Principia (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) containing laws of motion and gravitation and explaining motions in the sky and on earth with the same laws.  1687

 1688

English Parliament invites William of Orange to replace James II in fear of restoration of Catholicism  1688

 1689

1689-97: War of the League of Augsburg against France

Convention Parliament issues Bill of Rights; establishes a constitutional monarchy in Britain; bars Roman Catholics from the throne; William III and Mary II become joint monarchs of England and Scotland (to1694 Toleration Act grants freedom of worship to dissenters in England; Grand Alliance of the League of Augsburg England and the Netherlands.
 1689

 1690

English set up trading post at Calcutta

William III (of Orange) defeats Irish rebels and former King James II
 1690

 1692

Languedoc Canal connects the Mediterranean with the Bay of Biscay. 240 miles long, with 100 locks, 3 major aqueducts, 1 tunnel, and a summit reservoir. The largest canal project between Roman times and the nineteenth century.  1692

 1700

Great Northern War: Saxony, Poland, Brandenburg-Prussia, Hannover, Denmark, and Russia joins forces against Sweden for the second time, Sweden loses massive amounts of land in Germany, Poland and the Baltic  1700

 1702

1702-14: War of the Spanish succession, last of Louis XIV's Wars  1702

 1707

England, Scotland and Wales joined by the Act of Union, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain  1707

 1709

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Russia defeats Sweden
 1709

 1711

Peter the Great is defeated by Turks at Stanilesti.  1711

 1712

Thomas Newcomen builds first commercially successful steam engine. Able to keep deep coal mines clear of water. First significant power source other than wind and water.

the first public synagogue in inaugurated in Berlin
 1712

 1714

Treaty of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish succession, and reshapes the map of Europe. Spain loses half of Italy and the Spanish Netherlands to Austria  1714

 1717

Friendship treaty between France and Russia  1717

 1727

Newton dies

Spanish lay siege to Gibraltar
 1727

 1734

Spanish Inquisition ends  1734

 1736

Israel Baal Shem Tov founds the Jewish Hasidism (sincere devotion over Talmudic erudition appreciation of God in nature)  1736

 1739

Spain and England declare war  1739

 1740

Frederick II becomes King of Prussia

King Frederick the Great of Prussia invades Austrian Silesia supported by Bavaria, Saxony and Spain

Maria Theresa ascends the throne of Austria
 1740

 1746

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Scots defeated by the English
 1746

 1756

1756-63: Seven Years' War: Russia, Austria, and France against most other countries in Europe (mainly Britain and Prussia)  1756

 1757

British Empire in India  1757

 1759

British capture Quebec from the French  1759

 1762

Catherine I becomes Czarina of Russia  1762

 1765

Steam Engine invented  1765

 1768

Jews are massacred during riots in Russia-occupied Poland  1768

 1772

The Russians reach the Dniester for the first time in history.

First Partition of Poland by Austria, Russia and Prussia
 1772

 1773

the Book of Henoch is rediscovered in Abyssinia  1773

 1775

Watt's first efficient steam engine, much more efficient than the Newcomen.

The Austrians buy a part of Moldova (Bucovina) rom Turkey.
 1775

 1776

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

American Revolution
July 4, 1776
 1776

 1779

First steam powered mills. Crompton's "mule" combines Hargreaves' and Arkwright's machines, fully automating the weaving process.  1779

 1784

Russia amnnexes Crimea  1784

 1786

British-French trade agreement  1786

 1788

French Parlement (Spelled this way in French) lists greivances against Louis XVI  1788

 1789

French Revolution
July 14, 1789

George Washington is sworn in as the First President of the United States

Mutiny on the HMS Bounty on its voyage back to England from Tahiti
 1789

 1791

Russia gains the Black Sea from the Turks  1791

 1792

French monarchy abolished, Britain declares war on France

Second Partition of Poland
 1792

 1793

The War of the First Coalition (1793-97)

The new pro-revolutionary France fought an alliance of Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, and the Kingdom of Sardinia between 1793 and 1797. Great Britain led the alliance that's main purpose was to reestablish the monarchy in France. In 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte, a French General, led the French in northern Italy against the Austrians. Napoleon made major victories against the Austrians and in 1798 he led the French against Egypt as a prelude to invading British India. But Napoleon's campaign in Egypt was unsuccessful and he returned to France in 1799. Here, he overthrew the Directory and established the Consulate in which Napoleon was made the leader of France as the First Consul.
 1793

 1795

Third Partition of Poland, Polish indepenence shattered  1795

 1796

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Napoleon defeats Austrians
 1796

 1798

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland established with one parliament and one monarch

Napoleon conquers Egypt and Rome
Island of Malta surrenders to Napoleon

The War of the Second Coalition (1798-1802)
Napoleon's success against Austria in Italy had proven France's position in Europe. But while Napoleon was commanding the French in Egypt, a new alliance was formed called the Second Coalition. The alliance consisted of Russia, Great Britain, Austria, the Kingdom of Naples, Portugal, and the Ottoman Empire. Most of the war occurred in northern Italy and Switzerland. The Austrians and Russians, though, were very successful in Italy at the battles of Magnano (April 5, 1799), Cassano (April 27), Trebbia (June 19), and Novi (August 15). The coalition also occupied Milan and Turin, which destroyed previous French gains in the area. But the French were better off in Switzerland. After being defeated at Zurich (June 7) by the Austrians, the French defeated the Russians and on October 22 withdrew from the Second Coalition due to alleged lack of cooperation by the Austrians. When Napoleon returned to France and became the First Consul, he attempted to make peace with the allies. But they refused, and Napoleon planned a series of moves against the Austrians and its German allies for the spring of 1800. On June 14, a French force of 40,000 men under Napoleon defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Marengo. At the same time, another French force crossed the Rhine and captured Munich. On December 3, this force defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Hohenlinden and advanced towards the city of Linz, in Austria. On February 9, 1801, the French forced the Austrians to capitulate at the treaty of Luneville. The Germans ceded the left bank of the Rhine and recognized the French-influenced republics in northern Italy. The treaty also marked the end of the Second Coalition. On March 27, 1802, the British signed the Treaty of Amiens with France, thus completely ending the Second Coalition. But the treaty was short lasting and in 1803, France and Britain were again at war. The reason was the island of Malta. The French, assured by the Treaty of Amiens, were supposed to have had Malta returned to them. The British did not surrender the island, and war broke out again. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States and he was no longer able to make a vast colonial empire that he desired. Austria, Russia and Sweden joined Britain in 1805 and Spain joined France.
 1798

 1799

Napoleon takes over the French government as First Consul




Roman Republic
 1799

 1801

Austria makes a temporary peace with France

Vatican Concordat with Napoleon
 1801

 1803

US purchases Louisiana from France for $15 million

The War of the Third Coalition (1803-05)
Napoleon quickly moved against the Second Coalition. He exerted pressure since 1798 on Britain by keeping an army at Boulogne on the English Channel, preparing for an invasion of England. But after the formation of the new coalition against France, he moved the large force at Boulogne to meet the Austrians under Ferdinand III, who had invaded Bavaria. Some German states allied themselves with France such as Bavaria and Wurttemburg. Napoleon defeated Austria at Ulm and then moved on to capture Vienna. Alexander I sent an army to help the Austrians, but Napoleon crushed the combined Austro-Russian army at the Battle of Austerlitz also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors. Austria again capitulated on December 26, 1805 at the Treat of Pressburg. By the terms of this treaty, Austria gave France more territory in northern Italy, gave Bavaria more territory in Austria itself and recognized Wurttemburg and Baden as kingdoms. He also stripped Ferdinand of the title of Holy Roman Emperor, ending the empire.

The Confederation of the Rhine
Napoleon ended the Holy Roman Empire in 1805, and Austria attempted to regain it by forming the Austrian Empire. But France took the initiative and established the Confederation of the Rhine, which eventually consisted of all the German states except for Austria, Prussia, Brunswick and Hessen. Napoleon had already begun to take control of other places though. Joseph Bonaparte became King of Naples in 1806. Louis Bonaparte became King of Holland (former Batavian republic) that same year, and on June 12 he formed the Confederation of the Rhine. His success in uniting the continent was checked, or at least offset when the British, under Nelson, defeated the French and Spanish combined fleets at Trafalgar on October 21, 1805. This victory made Britain the master of the seas throughout the rest of the war. In 1806, since Napoleon could not defeat the British at sea, he initiated economic warfare. He formed the Continental System, which did not allow any continental ports to open their doors to British trade. Britain countered this by making the Orders of Council, which forbade any neutral ship from trading in any ports between ports of nations obeying Napoleon. British control over the sea troubled the Continental System and eventually made it fail
 1803

 1804

Haiti declares independence, others follow to breakdown the French colonial system  1804

 1805

Napoleon's French army wins the the battle of Austerlitz

 1805

 1806

Holy Roman Empire ends with the abdictation of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand

The War of the Fourth Coalition (1806-08)
Napoleon continued his influence in Europe before the British began to exploit its control over the seas. Prussia in 1806, concerned about Napoleon's power mainly in Germany, joined a new fourth coalition composed of Great Britain, Russia and Sweden. The Prussians were severely defeated at Jena on October 14, 1806 and Napoleon captured Berlin. He then moved on to defeat the Russians at Friedland and forced Alexander I to make peace. By the Treaty of Tilsit, Russia lost Poland to France and became Napoleon's ally, and Prussia was reduced to a third-rate power due to half of its territory being taken away. Napoleon then moved against Sweden with the support of Russia and Denmark. Sweden was defeated and King Gustav IV Adolph was forced to abdicate in favour of his uncle, Charles XIII. The heir to Sweden after him would be one of Napoleon's Marshals, General Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, who became King of Sweden in 1818.
By 1808, Napoleon was master of all of Europe except for Russia and Great Britain. Nationalistic feelings in some of Napoleon's territories began to weaken Napoleon's power. This coupled with Britain's persistence in opposition to France. The first nationalistic uprisings were in Spain in 1808. After dethroning Charles IV, Napoleon but his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne. The Spanish revolted and drove Joseph out of Madrid. The Peninsular War in Spain had thus begun. The British under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, aided the Spaniards in their violent struggle. This struggle severely handicapped Napoleon in his later conflicts in further Eastern Europe. The first enemy after domination of Europe by Napoleon was Austria. Now Austria joined the Fifth Coalition with Great Britain in 1809. Napoleon again defeated Austria at Wagram in July, and forced them to sign the Treaty of Vienna, and Austria lost territory such as Salzburg, Galicia and large portions of its territory in southern Europe. Napoleon then married the daughter of Francis II of Austria in hope of keeping Austria out of newer coalitions.
 1806

 1807

Robert Fulton's Clermont first successful steamboat.

Portugese government temporarily moves to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil
 1807

 1808

France extends to Rome and Spain, British support Spanish guerillas  1808

 1809

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

1809-1814:
Annexation by France,Napoleon excommunicated, Pope arrested
 1809

 1812

Napoleon leads unsuccessful invasion of Russia
Napoleon's Army retreats from Russia

The Downfall of Napoleon
In 1812, Napoleon's turning point in his career had come. War again broke out between France and Russia because Alexander refused to accept the Continental System. This is where the "Spanish Ulcer" became a serious problem. With one army occupied in Spain, he went to Russia with 500,000 men. He defeated the Russians at Borodino and took Moscow on September 14, 1812. But the Russians had burned the city making it impossible for Napoleon's forces to take shelter in the cold upcoming winter. The French retreated to Germany, on the way losing most of their men. Russia then joined the Fifth Coalition, consisting of Great Britain, Prussia, and Sweden. Prussia, pressured by patriotism in its country due to reforms, opened the War of Liberation against Napoleon. Napoleon then defeated the Prussians at Lutzen and Bautzen. He then won his last major victory at the Battle of Dresden on August 27, 1813 where 100,000 French won against a combined force of Prussian, Austrian, and Russian forces numbering 150,000. But the following October, the Battle of Leipzig forced Napoleon to retreat across the Rhine, thus freeing Germany. The next year, in 1814, the Austrians, Russians, and Prussians invaded northern France. In March 1814, they took Paris. Napoleon was forced to abdicate and he went into exile at Elba.

The Congress of Vienna
Napoleon escaped Elba in March 1815 and initiated the Hundred Days'. He made a campaign into Belgium and on June 18, 1815, Napoleon was again defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and was forced to abdicate for the last time to Saint Helena until his death in 1821. The Congress of Vienna took place between September 1814 to June 1815. Representatives from every European country except Turkey attended the Congress. The most prominent were Russia, Austria, Great Britain, and Prussia. First, the Congress deprived France of all territory conquered by Napoleon after the Revolution. It united the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands under the House of Orange and united Norway and Sweden under Charles XIV John of Sweden. It also recognized the independence of Switzerland. Russia received a New Kingdom of Poland with Alexander as King; Prussia received West Prussia, Posen, half of Saxony, northern Saxony, and other provinces; Hannover became a Kingdom and received more territory; Austria regained almost all of its territory lost to Napoleon and was compensated for its loss of the Netherlands by more territory in Italy. The German Confederation was formed after the Frankfurt Assembly under the "presidency" of Austria. This united almost 40 sovereign states in Germany, including Prussia. The Congress almost destroyed the Slave Trade, and kept Europe at peace for almost 40 years.

The Russians annex the Easter part of Moldova (Basarabia).
 1812

 1814

French defeated by the allies (Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Sweden and Portugal)

US and Britain sign peace treaty at Ghent, Belgium
 1814

 1815

Napoleon is defeated by Wellington at Waterloo

The restorations of 1815 returned the Papal Italian territories, until the period of the unificaiton of Italy, 1859-1870.
 1815

 1821

Greek Revolution
March 25, 1821-1829
 1821

 1824

Charles X of France fails in an attempt to restore absolute Monarchy in France  1824

 1828

Russia declares war on Turkeyin aid of the Greek Revolution, Greece also aided by Britain and France  1828

 1829

Turks recognize Greek independence

Polish revolt against Russia fails
 1829

 1830

Manchester-Liverpool railway begins first regular commercial rail service.

French invade Algeria
 1830

 1831

Faraday discovers electro-magnetic current, making possible generators and electric engines.

Belgium seperates from the Netherlands
 1831

 1833

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Slavery abolished in the British Empire

The Church of Greece declares its autonomy from the Patriarchate at Constantinople, as an "autocephalic" church.
 1833

 1834

Charles Babbage develops his analytic engine--the forerunner of the computer.

Fox Talbot produces photographs.

Spanish Inquisition officially ends
 1834

 1837

Victoria becomes Queen of Great Britain

Morse develops the telegraph and Morse Code.


Great Western-: First ocean-going steamship.
 1837

 1838

Daguerre perfects the Daguerrotype.  1838

 1839

1839-1842: First Opium War between Britain and China over drug importation

Fox Talbot introduces photographic paper.
 1839

 1840

Lower and Upper Canada united  1840

 1843

Great Britain: First large, iron, screw-propelled steamship.  1843

 1844

Commercial use of Morse's telegraph (Baltimore to Washington).

Chinese ports open to US ships
 1844

 1846

1846-1848: US at war with Mexico

Pneumatic tire patented
 1846

 1848

Second Republic founded in France by Napoleon III  1848

 1849

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Monier develops reinforced concrete.
 1849

 1851

Singer invents first practical sewing machine.  1851

 1852

Napoleon III becomes Emperor of France  1852

 1853

1853-56: Crimean War begins as Turkey declares war on Russia  1853

 1854

Britain and France join the Turks against Russia  1854

 1856

Russia defeated by British, French and Turks  1856

 1857

Pasteur experiments with fermentation.

Sepoy rebellion in India
 1857

 1858

First Trans-Atlantic Cable completed

Cathode rays discovered.
 1858

 1859

1859-1870. The political independence of the Papacy formally ended.

Loss of Romagna.
 1859

 1860

American Civil War
1860-1865


Loss of the Marches & Umbria.
 1860

 1861

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

US Civil War begins

Independant Kingdom of Italy proclaimed
 1861

 1862

Prussia grows under Otto von Bismarck  1862

 1863

Poland revolts against Russia

French capture Mexico City
 1863

 1865

Napoleon III and Bismarck meet at Biarritz, France  1865

 1866

Austria defeated by Prussia and Italy

Dominion of Canada founded
 1866

 1867

Karl Marx writes and publishes the Capital

Alfred Nobel produces dynamite, the first high explosive which can be safely handled.

Austria-Hungary dual-monarchy established
 1867

 1868

Revolution in Spain  1868

 1869

Suez Canal opened  1869

 1870

1870-71: Franco-Prussian War, French surrendurs Alsace-Lorraine to the new German Empire(former Prussia)  1870

 1871

Prussian dominated German Empire founded with Bismarck as Chancellor  1871

 1873

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Christopher Sholes invents the Remington typewriter.

Clerk Maxwell states the laws of electro-magnetic radiation

Economic crisis in Europe
 1873

 1876

Bell invents the telephone.  1876

 1877

1877-1878: Russo-Turkish War: Turkish power in Europe broken after the Congress of Berlin

Edison invents the phonograph.
 1877

 1878

Pius IX dies after 32 years of pontificate (the longest ever)  1878

 1879

Edison invents the incandescent lamp.

Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Wurtemburg, Germany. In 1895, Einstein attempted to enroll at Eidgenossische Technishe Hockshule (ETH), a technical university in Zurich, to study Electrical Engineering, but failed the entrance examination. In 1896, he renounced his German citizenship and did not officially become even a prospective citizen of another country until 1899 when he applied for citizenship in Switzerland. Einstein eventually attended ETH became a teacher in 1900.

In 1905, Einstein received his doctorate from ETH for a discovery in the determination of molecular dimensions. In this year, he also wrote three papers about his discoveries in quantum theory and relativity. In 1921, Einstein received a Nobel Prize for his 1905 work on photoelectric effects.

For his accomplishments, Einstein began receiving international attention. He returned to Germany in 1914 to accept a research position at the Prussian Academy of Sciences and a chair position at the University of Berlin. He also began traveling to the United States and on his third visit in 1932, he was offered and accepted a job at Princeton University. He became a US citizen in 1940.

In 1939, at the urging of Dr. Leo Szilard, Einstein wrote to President Roosevelt warning of a new discovery of a "nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium." Einstein forewarned President Roosevelt that the discovery of such a reaction could lead to the construction of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type." Einstein also mentioned that Dr. Leo Szilard was working on this and urged the US to find this reaction before Germany. It was Einstein's letter that led President Roosevelt to funding uranium research and later to the Manhattan Project.

Einstein died on April 18, 1955 of heart failure. On July 9, 1955, he and Bertrand Russell issued a Manifesto. The Russell-Einstein Manifesto warned of the peril of nuclear weapons and the dangers of continuing an arms race and called upon scientists to discuss a resolution.
 1879

 1881

May 10 1881 - Proclamation of the Kingdom of Romania.

a wave of anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia causes mass migrations of Jews (2.5 million Jews settle in the United States thousands settle in Palestine)
 1881

 1882

Britain conquers Egypt

Germany, Austria and Italy forms the Triple Alliance in fear of Russian conquests, it will eventually lead to World War I
 1882

 1883

First skyscraper (ten stories) in Chicago.

The Brooklyn Bridge opens. This large suspension bridge, built by the Roeblings (father and son), is a triumph of engineering.
 1883

 1884

Maxim invents the machine gun, making possible mass slaughter and beginning the mechanization of warfare.  1884

 1885

Benz develops first automobile to run on internal- combustion engine.  1885

 1886

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Statue of Liberty dedicated
 1886

 1888

Hertz produces radio waves.  1888

 1889


Eiffel Tower.

Second (Socialist) International formed in Paris
 1889

 1892

Rudolf Diesel invents his namesake.  1892

 1895

Lumiere brothers develop Cinematograph.

Roentgen discovers X-rays.
 1895

 1896

Marconi patents wireless telegraph.  1896

 1897

Joseph Thomson discovers particles smaller than atoms.

Jews of Palestine led by Theodor Herzl at Basel (Switzerland) call for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine (first Zionist Congress
 1897

 1898

Spanish-American War

U.S. President McKinley is shot, succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt
 1898

 1899

Aspirin invented.  1899

 1900

First Zeppelin built  1900

 1901

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Marconi transmits first trans-Atlantic radio message (from Cape Cod).

Queen Victoria dies
 1901

 1903

Wright brothers make first powered flight. Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.  1903

 1904

Russo-Japanese War, competition for Korea and Manchuria: Japanese defeat Russians, Europe startled

General strikes and riots in Russia, first workers' soviet set up in St.Petersburg
 1904

 1905

Albert Einstein (1879-1955)publishes a paper on his Theory of Relativity

Norway becomes independent from Sweden
 1905

 1907

Second Hague Peace Conference with 46 nations adopts 10 conventions on rules of war  1907

 1908

Henry Ford mass-produces the Model T.

Inquisition becomes Holy Office
 1908

 1909

Tel Aviv is founded as a Hebrew speaking Jewish city  1909

 1911

Italian-Turkish War, first use of aircraft as an offensive weapon

General strikes and riots in Russia, first workers' soviet set up in St.Petersburg

Chinese Republic overthrows Manchu dynasty
 1911

 1912

April 12: Titanic sinks on maiden voyage

1912-13: Balkan Wars: Turks defeated twice by Balkan alliances, forced to give up more land
 1912

 1914

World War I begins:
The Great War
 1914

 1917

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Soviet Revolution

British officer T. E. Lawrence plays instrumental role in uniting bedwin tribes of Arabia in guerilla warfare against the Turkish army, starting with a decisive victory against the Red Sea port of Akaba. Turkey was aligned with germany durng World War I.
T. E. Lawrence becomes known as Lawrence of Arabia.



Three shepherd children see the Virgin Mary in Fatima Portugal
 1917

 1919

World War I ends:
Peace Treaty signed by German delegates and Allies in Versailles.

US, British and French troops leave Russia

League of Nations formed
 1919

 1920

First League of Nations meeting in Geneva, Switzerland

Heyday of the silent movies
 1920

 1921

US Congress formally ends WWI

German inflation begins

Irish Free State formed
 1921

 1922

USSR formed by the Bolsheviks

Mussolini forms fascist government in Italy
 1922

 1923

French and Belgian troops take the Ruhr to force reparation payments  1923

 1924

Death of Lenin: Stalin wins power struggle in Russia  1924

 1926

General Strike in Britain

Socialist riot in Vienna
 1926

 1927

Charles Lindburgh flies solo across the Atlantic from Long Island to Le Bourget, paris on the single-engine Spirit of St Louis

German economy collapses
 1927

 1928

Kellogg-Briand Pact, outlawing war, signed by 65 nations

World economic crisis
 1928

 1929

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

First phase of the Great Depression

Concordat with Mussolini, Independence of Vatican City
 1929

 1930

Britain, US, France, Japan, and Italy sign the naval disarmament treaty

Nazi's first appear German elections
 1930

 1931

King Alfonso XIII overthrown, Spain becomes a republic

Mukden Incident in Japanese occupied Manchuria
 1931

 1932

Iraq becomes independent

Nazi's lead German elections
 1932

 1933

Hitler made German Chancellor - obtains dictatorial powers

First concentration camps opened by the Nazis

Japan and Germany withdraw from the League of Nations
 1933

 1934

Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss assassinated by the Nazis  1934

 1935

Mussolini invades Ethiopia  1935

 1936

Germans occupy the Rhine

Spanish civil war begins

War between China and Japan begins

Japan and Germany sign the Anti-Cominterim treaty, Italy joins the Axis in 1937
 1936

 1937

Hitler continues to increase German military power  1937

 1938

Austria occupied by Nazis

Munich Pact allows Nazis to take Czechslovakia
 1938

 1939

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

World War II begins
Poland, France invaded
Battle of Britain

Two definitive motion pictures are released:
Citizen Kane, and
Gone With The Wind
 1939

 1940

October 28: Greece invaded by Mussolini's Italian army. Italians are pushed back through Albania. Hitler opens a second front against Greece in March 1941 in aid of Mussolini. Greek army overrun at the Rhodopi mountains fortifications, border with Bulgaria, in April, allowed to leave fortifications without surrendering their arms.  1940

 1941

Greece overrun, Russia invaded


The Empire of Japan attacks the U.S. Fleet at Pearl Harbour without having delivered a Declaration of War. The declaration of War came one hour after the 8 AM attack because the Japanese Embassy in Washington DC took longer than expected to translate the message from the Japanese government to the government of the United States. After the success of the devastating attack admiral Yamamoto said ³I fear all we have succeeded in doing is awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with resolve².

Hitler envisions a "final solution" for the Jews and extermination camps are set up ("Holocaust") that will eliminate six million Jews
 1941

 1942

The U.S. Lands forces in North Africa, German forces are driven to Italy


Manhattan project lead by Dr Robert Openheimer (1904 - 1967) to create the first atom bomb. Albert Einstein, seen here with Oppenheimer, has said he does not know about the Third World War, but the Fourh will be fought with sticks and stones.
 1942

 1943

Italy invaded by allied forces in Sicilly, then at Angio  1943

 1944

The Allies invade Normandy  1944

 1945

End of World War II
Germany surrenders
The U.S. drops first nuclear devices on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Nuclear Age begins

a library of early Christian texts is discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt
 1945

 1946

UN established by leading world nations

Jan 10: First meeting of the UN General Assembly in London

April: League of Nations dissolved

June: Italy abolishes monarchy

Jan 1: UK nationalizes its coal mines

Feb 10: Peace treaties for Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Finland signed in Paris

Feb 23-25: Burma and Ceylon granted independence from Britain

April 30: Israel proclaimed a nation

May 14: Berlin airlift beginsMay 14: Berlin airlift beginsMay 14: Berlin airlift begins

June 28: Republic of Korea founded by the UN
1946-1949: Civil war in Greece between royalists backed by the West and Communist guerila forces backed by the Soviet block.
 1946

 1947

October 14: Chuck Yeager breaks the Sound Barrier in the X1 experimental plane named Glamorous Glynnis, after his wife.

the Dead Sea Scrolls are discovered near Qumran in caves on the hills by the northwestern shores of the Dead Sea.
 1947

 1948

At midnight on May 14, 1948, the Provisional Government of Israel proclaimed the new State of Israel. On that same date the United States, in the person of President Truman, recognized the provisional Jewish government as de facto authority of the new Jewish state (de jure recognition was extended on January 31). The U.S. delegates to the U.N. and top ranking State Department officials were angered that Truman released his recognition statement to the press without notifying them first. On May 15, 1948, the Arab states issued their response statement and Arab armies invaded Israel and the first Arab-Israeli war began.

Mahatma Gandhi Assasinated


the Jewish state of Israel is founded in Palestine
 1948

 1949

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Jan 7: Cease-fire in Palestine

Jan 31: Truman orders development of the hydrogen bomb

Feb 24: Israel signs armistice with Egypt

April 4: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) signed by 12 nations to counter Soviet aggression

June 25: Start of the Korean War (See Korean War)

Sept 21: German Federal Republic (West Germany) established

Sept 23: Soviets test atomic bomb

Oct 1: Communist Peoples' Republic of China formally proclaimed by Mao Zedong
 1949

 1950

1950-1953
Korean War

1950-1975
Vietnam War
 1950

 1951

March 19: Six European nations agree on Schuman plan for a Steel and Coal pool, it will eventually lead to the European Union

Sept 8: Japanese peace treaty signed by 49 nations
 1951

 1952

Feb 6: George VI dies, Elizabeth II named Queen of England

February: NATO approves the European army

November: AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) announces satisfactory hydrogen weapons testing in the US

Ernest hemingway publishes The Old Man and the Sea
wins Pulitzer Prize for Fiction 1953
 1952

 1953

Jan 20:General Dwight D. Eisenhower is inaugurated as US President

Feb 10: European Coal and Steel Plan goes into effect

March 5: Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin dies

March 6: Malenkov becomes the Soviet Premier

June 17: East Berliners rebel against Communism but are suppressed by Soviet forces

June 18: Egypt becomes a republic ruled by a military junta

July 27: Korean armistice signed

Aug 20: Moscow announces the explosion of the Hydrogen bomb
 1953

 1954

Jan 21 Nautilus, the First nuclear-powered submarine launched by the U.S  1954

 1956

Heyday of the I Love Lucy popular TV show  1956

 1958

1958-1963 The Mercury Program

Fidel Castro assumes power in Cuba during the last hours of 1958, nistalls communist government and aligns with Moscow and the U.S.S.R. Castro will survive 10 U.S. Presidencies.
 1958

 1959

Sputnik, first artificial satelite circles the Earth  1959

 1960

1960-1963: U.S. military advisers in South Vietnam rise from 900 to 15,000  1960

 1961

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Failed invasion of Cuba by the U.S. at the Bay of Pigs

April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin is the first person to orbit the Earth
 1961

 1962

1962-1966 The Gemini Program

Cuba missile crisis stand-off between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R.
 1962

 1963

John F. Kennedy assasinated

Presiden Lyndon B. Johnson increases U.S. commitment in Vietnam
 1963

 1965

Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople mutually nullify the excommunications of 1054.  1965

 1966

Vatican abolishes Index of Forbidden Books  1966

 1967

The Seven-Day War between Israel, Egypt and Syria ends with Israeli victory.

April 21: U.S.-backed junta of 3 Colonels overthrows Greek government and takes power in Greece
November: King Constantine of Greece flees and eventually settles in London. Greek monarchy is served by a military viceroy appointed by the ruling junta and is eventually abolished through a referrendum after the fall of the junta and restoration of democracy in 1974

1967-1972 The Apollo Program (Lunar)

The Beatles record Seargent Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
 1967

 1968

Robert F. Kennedy assasinated
Martin Luther King assasinated

Chicago riots

Summer of Love

Student uprising in Paris

Richard Nixon is elected President of the U.S.
 1968

 1969

First Men on the Moon:
Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin land their lunar vehicle ³Eagle² at the Sea of tranquility.
 1969

 1970

Commercial services begin for the Boeing 747-100, the world's largest passenger jet airliner.  1970

 1971

1971-1991 Salyut Space Stations  1971

 1972

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

The Watergate scandal slowly errupts in the pages of The Washington Post

Israeli athetes are assasinated during the Olympic games at Munich
 1972

 1973

November 17: Student uprising in the Polytechnic at Athens is crushed by the military Junta. A transfer of power occurs within the ranks of the junta which leads to the unsuccessful coup in Cyprus in July 1974.

1973-1974 Skylab
 1973

 1974

Nixon resigns U.S. Presidency as a result of the Watergate scandal

Turkey invades Cyprus; divides the island into Greek and Turkish sectors, supports Turkish Cypriot State which is not recognised by any other nations.

Greek Junta falls after unsuccessful coup in Cyprus which precipitated the Turkish invasion. Greek statesman Konstantin Karamanlis returns to Athens from self-exile in Paris to assume the leadership of transition into democracy. Karamanlis is given the personal jet of the French President to fly to Athens. France acts as protector of the transitional period and helps avert a war between Greece and Turkey when the French fleet positions itself between the Turkish fleet and Greek islands: France declares that any shots fired by any nation over the position of the French fleet will be considered an act of war against France. The transitional period ends with the restoration of Democracy in Greece and the occupation of the northern part of Cyprus by the Turkish-backed Turkish Cyriot government.
 1974

 1975

End of War in Vietnam

12:12pm (EDT) July 17, 1974. Apollo-Soyuz rendezvous in space

Both craft were launched on July 15, 1975. The crews exchanged commemorative flags and other gifts on live television.
 1975

 1976

Viking 1 lands on Mars on June the 20th 1976  1976

 1978

The name "John," shunned for centuries, has now been born by three of the last four Popes. This was all due to the saintliness and magnanimity of John XXIII. John Paul I wished to honor John and his successor, Paul VI, and then John Paul II wished to honor all three of them.
John Paul I's brief reign moved the Cardinals to elect a relatively young and vigorous Pope.
John Paul II has now, indeed, reigned into the new Millennium. He was also the first non-Italian Pope in centuries, and the first Polish Pope ever.
It has been a historic reign indeed, with John Paul playing a large part in the Fall of Communism, but he has lately grown gravely frail and ill.

Apple Computer is born.

John Paul II is the first non-Italian Pope in centuries (and the first Pole ever
 1978

 1979

Iranian extremists overrun the U.S. Embassy in Tehran; take American hostages who are released in January 1981

Apple launches the AppleII
 1979

 1980

1980-1988: Presidency of Ronald Reagan


"We are what happens to Hydrogen atoms given fifteen billion years of evolution."



Some 3.6 million years ago, in what is now northern Tanzania, a volcano errupted, the resulting cloud of ash covering the surrounding savannahs. In 1979, the paleoanthropologist Mary Leaky found in that ash footprints --the footprints, she believes, of an early humanoid, perhaps an ancestor of all the people on the Earth today. And 380,000 kilometers away, in a flat dry plain that humans have in a moment of optimism called the Sea of Tranquility, there is another footprint, left by the first human to walk another world. We have come far in 3.6 million years, and in 4.6 billion and in 15 billion.

For we are the local embodiment of a Cosmos grown to self-awareness. We have begun to contemplate our origins: starstuff pondering the stars; organized assemblages of ten billion billion billion atoms considering the evolution of atoms; tracing the long journey by which, here at least, consciousness arose. Our loyalties are to the species and the planet.
We speak for Earth. Our obligation to survive is owed not just to ourselves but also to that Cosmos, ancient and vast, from which we spring.
......Carl Sagan
......Cosmos

Read Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit!
 1980

 1981

Space Shuttle program begins


a Bulgarian tries to kill the Pope
 1981

 1983

Pioneer 10 on June the 13th 1983 becomes the first manmade object ever to leave the solar system  1983

 1984

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

Apple releases the Macintosh Operating System.
The Personal Computer revolution is launced
 1984

 1985

the first World Youth Day is held in Rome when Pope John Paul II invites Catholic and Buddhist youth from all over the world to pray with him  1985

 1986

The Space Shuttle Challenger explodes 73 seconds after lift off, killing all crew including Teacher in Space Krista McAuliffe


1986-2000: Mir Space Station
 1986

 1987

Microsoft releases an improved Windows Operating System based on Apple's Macintosh

A court battle ensues between Apple and Microsoft, with Apple alleging that Microsoft stole Macintosh operating system industrial secrets in order to develop their Windows system
 1987

 1988



"...if we discover a complete theory [unifying relativity and quantum mechanics (ed.)] it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason --for then we would know the mind of God."
......Stephen Hawking
......A Brief History of Time
 1988

 1990

Fall of the U.S.S.R.

The end of Communism in Eastern Europe allows the Orthodox churches to re-emerge.

The Gulf War
Iraq invades and occupies Kuwait. The U.S. lead a coalition against Iraq. Based in Saudi Arabia the coalition invades Kuwait and drives the Iraqi army back into Iraq. Instiogates no fly zone and ongoing U.N. arms inspections.
 1990

 1993

New South African Constitution puts end to apartheid  1993

 1994

Last episode aired of futuristic, utopian, popular entertainment series: Star Trek, The Next Generation  1994

 1995

Microsoft Launches Windows 95, the closest look and feel to the Macintosh system yet.  1995

 1998

20 November, 1998 - The FGB, Zarya, the first component of the International Space Station is launched on a Proton rocket from Kazakhstan.

Microsoft Launches Windows 98, with improved performance and a closer look and feel to the Macintosh system.
 1998

 2000

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

The Mir space station burns-up on re-entry

November 2000 - First crew to arrive at the International Space Station


Apple launches Operating System X
Microsoft Launches Windows 2000, to be folowed by Windows XP
 2000

 2001

Onset of Era of Terrorism:
Destruction of the World Trade Center, New York.
Four Commercial air liners are hijacked; two are crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center one at the Pentagon in Washington DC, and one crashes in a field in Pensylvania after passengers attempt to thwart the hijackers on September 11.


War on Terrorism
The U.S. declares far reaching and long range war against international terrorism, specifying the Al Queda network as responsible for the attack against the World Trade Center and the pentagon

Air attacks against Afganistan, followed by invasion with land forces ousts ruling Taliban party and instigates a western-style democratic government.
 2001

 2003

War by the United States and the United Kingdom against Iraq:

After an ultimatum by the United States for Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to leave power and go into self exile expires, the United States, with the political and military support of the united Kingdom, and against the wishes of United Nations veto-weilding member states, invade Iraq, oust Saddam Hussein and instigate the process of establishing a western-style democracy on the grounds that the ousted regime possessed Weapons of Mass Destruction and was willing to use them as terrorist or first strike weapons. After exhaustive searches by United States and United Kingdom forces no conclusive proof is found of the present or past existence of Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq.
Deposed Iraqi leader Sadam Hussein is captured December 13.
 2003

 2004

January: President of the United States, George W. Bush, announces plans to return to the Moon with a semi-permanent colony and venture to Mars with manned missions by the year 2020.  2004

 

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE | BOTTOM

 


 

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE (12th Century)

 

 

Please Select a view:

1. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS | BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
2. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
3. ROME: POPES & EMPERORS
4. CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
5. BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
6. BRITAIN
7. FRANCE
8. MILESTONES & EVENTS

 

© 2002 THINKWORKS.COM
This website is made on a Mac and is powered by a Filemaker Pro (R) database

 

Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit

Wherever possible there must be independent confirmation of the facts.

Encourage substantive debate on the evidence by knowledgeable proponents of all points of view.

Arguments from authority carry little weight (in science there are no "authorities").

Spin more than one hypothesis - don't simply run with the first idea that caught your fancy.

Try not to get overly attached to a hypothesis just because it's yours.

Quantify, wherever possible.

If there is a chain of argument every link in the chain must work.

Occam's razor - if there are two hypothesis that explain the data equally well choose the simpler.

Ask whether the hypothesis can, at least in principle, be falsified (shown to be false by some unambiguous test). In other words, it is testable? Can others duplicate the experiment and get the same result?

Additional issues are:

Conduct control experiments - especially "double blind" experiments where the person taking measurements is not aware of the test and control subjects.

Check for confounding factors - separate the variables.

Common fallacies of logic and rhetoric

Ad hominem - attacking the arguer and not the argument.

Argument from "authority".

Argument from adverse consequences (putting pressure on the decision maker by pointing out dire consequences of an "unfavorable" decision).

Appeal to ignorance (absence of evidence is not evidence of absence).

Special pleading (typically referring to god's will).

Begging the question (assuming an answer in the way the question is phrased).

Observational selection (counting the hits and forgetting the misses).

Statistics of small numbers (such as drawing conclusions from inadequate sample sizes).

Misunderstanding the nature of statistics (President Eisenhower expressing astonishment and alarm on discovering that fully half of all Americans have below average intelligence!)

Inconsistency (e.g. military expenditures based on worst case scenarios but scientific projections on environmental dangers thriftily ignored because they are not "proved").

Non sequitur - "it does not follow" - the logic falls down.

Post hoc, ergo propter hoc - "it happened after so it was caused by" - confusion of cause and effect.

Meaningless question ("what happens when an irresistible force meets an immovable object?).

Excluded middle - considering only the two extremes in a range of possibilities (making the "other side" look worse than it really is).

Short-term v. long-term - a subset of excluded middle ("why pursue fundamental science when we have so huge a budget deficit?").

Slippery slope - a subset of excluded middle - unwarranted extrapolation of the effects (give an inch and they will take a mile).

Confusion of correlation and causation.

Caricaturing (or stereotyping) a position to make it easier to attack.

Suppressed evidence or half-truths.

Weasel words - for example, use of euphemisms for war such as "police action" to get around limitations on Presidential powers. "An important art of politicians is to find new names for institutions which under old names have become odious to the public"

(excerpted from The Planetary Society Australian Volunteer Coordinators Prepared by Michael Paine )

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE (12th Century) | BOTTOM (late 20th century)

 

Please Select a view:

1. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS | BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
2. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
3. ROME: POPES & EMPERORS
4. CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
5. BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
6. BRITAIN
7. FRANCE
8. MILESTONES & EVENTS