A CHRONOLOGY OF THE COMMON ERA
at thinkworks.com
Compiled from sources on the internet and edited by Dimitris Sivyllis

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  The mission of this website is to provide a comprehensive and accurate way to research and cross-reference information about the events, people and epochs which have shaped the Common Era.

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In the works:
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1. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS | BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
2. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
3. ROME: POPES & EMPERORS
4. CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
5. BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
6. BRITAIN
7. FRANCE
8. MILESTONES & EVENTS

See a graphic TIMELINE OF THE COMMON ERA
Read Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit!

INFORMATION IN THIS SITE UPDATED: 01:19 EST (6:19 GMT) 1/26/04

     

JUMP TO MIDDLE (12th Century) | BOTTOM (late 20th century)

YEAR C.E.
MONARCHY,
PRIME MINISTERS
in BRITAIN

RULERS and
PRESIDENTS
of FRANCE

THE
WORLD
 

 802

House of Wessex
Egbert
     802

 814

  Later Carolingian Transition
Louis I
(not a king of 'France')
   814

 839

Aethelwulf      839

 840

  Charles II
(the Bald)
   840

 855

Aethelbald      855

 860

Aethelbert      860

 866

Aethelred      866

 871

Alfred the Great      871

 877

  Louis II
(the Stammerer)
   877

 879

  Louis III
Carloman
(joint with Louis III above, until 882)
   879

 884

  Charles the Fat    884

 888

  Eudes
(also Odo)
of Paris
(non-Carolingian)
   888

 898

  Charles III
(the Simple)
   898

 899

Edward the Elder      899

 922

  Robert I
(non-Carolingian)
   922

 923

  Raoul
(also Rudolf, non-Carolingian)
   923

 925

Athelstan      925

 936

  Louis IV
(d'Outremer or The Foreigner)
   936

 940

Edmund the Magnificent      940

 946

Eadred      946

 954

  Lothar
(also Lothaire)
   954

 955

Eadwig (Edwy) All-Fair      955

 959

Edgar the Peaceable      959

 975

Edward the Martyr      975

 978

Aethelred the Unready      978

 986

  Louis V
(the Do-Nothing)
   986

 987

  Capetian Dynasty
Hugh Capet
   987

 996

  Robert II
(the Pious)
   996

 1014

Danish Line
Svein Forkbeard
     1014

 1016

Edmund Ironside      1016

 1031

  Henry I    1031

 1035

Harald Harefoot      1035

 1040

Hardicanute      1040

 1042

Edward the Confessor      1042

 1060

  Philip I    1060

 1066

Norman Line
William I the Conqueror
     1066

 1087

William II Rufus      1087

 1100

Henry I Beauclerc      1100

 1108

  Louis VI
(the Fat)
   1108

 1135

Stephen      1135

 1137

  Louis VII
(the Young)
   1137

 1141

Empress Matilda      1141

 1154

Henry II Curtmantle      1154

 1180

  Philip II Augustus    1180

 1189

Richard I
The Lionheart
     1189

 1199

John Lackland      1199

 1216

Henry III      1216

 1223

  Louis VIII
(the Lion)
   1223

 1226

   Louis IX
(St. Louis)
   1226

 1270

  Philip III
(the Bold)
   1270

 1272

Edward I Longshanks      1272

 1285

  Philip IV
(the Fair)
   1285

 1307

Edward II      1307

 1314

  Louis X
(the Stubborn)
   1314

 1316

  John I
Philip V
(the Tall)
   1316

 1322

  Charles IV
(the Fair)
   1322

 1327

Edward III      1327

 1328

  Valois Dynasty
Philip VI
   1328

 1350

  John II
(the Good)
   1350

 1364

  Charles V
(the Wise)
   1364

 1377

Richard II      1377

 1380

  Charles VI
(the Mad, Well-Beloved, or Foolish)
   1380

 1399

Plantagenet, Lancastrian Line
Henry IV Bolingbroke
     1399

 1413

Henry V      1413

 1422

Henry VI Charles VII
(the Well-Served or Victorious)
   1422

 1461

Plantagenet, Yorkist Line
Edward IV
Louis XI
(the Spider)
   1461

 1471

Again,
Edward IV
     1471

 1483

Edward V Charles VIII
(Father of his People)
   1483

 1485

House of Tudor
Henry VII Tudor
     1485

 1498

  Louis XII    1498

 1509

Henry VIII      1509

 1515

  Francis I    1515

 1547

Edward VI Henry II    1547

 1553

Lady Jane Grey      1553

 1558

Elizabeth I      1558

 1559

  Francis II    1559

 1560

  Charles IX    1560

 1574

  Henry III    1574

 1589

  Bourbon Dynasty
Henry IV
   1589

 1603

House of Stuart
James I
     1603

 1610

  Louis XIII    1610

 1625

Charles I      1625

 1643

  Louis XIV
(the Sun King)
   1643

 1649

The Commonwealth
Oliver Cromwell
     1649

 1658

Richard Cromwell      1658

 1660

House of Stuart, Restored
Charles II
     1660

 1685

James II      1685

 1689

House of Orange and Stuart
William III, Mary II
     1689

 1702

House of Stuart
Anne
     1702

 1714

House of Brunswick, Hanover Line
George I
     1714

 1715

  Louis XV    1715

 1721

Sir Robert Walpole
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1721

 1727

George II      1727

 1742

Earl of Wilmington
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1742

 1743

Henry Pelham
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1743

 1754

Duke of Newcastle
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1754

 1756

Duke of Devonshire
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1756

 1757

Duke of Newcastle
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1757

 1760

George III      1760

 1762

Earl of Bute
Prime Minister,
ory
     1762

 1763

George Grenville
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1763

 1765

Marquess of Rockingham
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1765

 1767

Duke of Grafton
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1767

 1770

Lord North
Prime Minister,
Tory
     1770

 1774

  Louis XVI    1774

 1782

Marquess of Rockingham
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1782

 1783

Duke of Portland
Prime Minister,
coalition
     1783

 1792

  First Republic
National Convention
   1792

 1795

  Directory (Directors)
Paul François Jean Nicolas de Barras
Jean-François Reubell
Louis Marie La Revellíere-Lépeaux
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot
Etienne Le Tourneur
François Marquis de Barthélemy
Philippe Antoine Merlin de Douai
François de Neufchâteau
Jean Baptiste Comte de Treilhard
Emmanuel Joseph Comte de Sieyés
Roger Comte de Ducos
Jean François Auguste Moulins
Louis Gohier
   1795

 1799

  Consulate
1st Consul:
1799 - 1804
Napoleon Bonaparte
2nd Consul:
1799 Emmanuel Joseph Comte de Sieyés,
1799 - 1804 Jean-Jacques Régis Cambacérès
3rd Consul:
1799 - 1799 Pierre-Roger Ducos
1799 - 1804 Charles François Lebrun
   1799

 1801

Henry Addington
Prime Minister,
Tory
     1801

 1804

William Pitt the Younger
Prime Minister,
Tory
First Empire
(emperors)
Napoleon I
   1804

 1806

Lord Grenville
Prime Minister,
coalition
     1806

 1807

Duke of Portland
Prime Minister,
Tory
     1807

 1809

Spencer Perceval
Prime Minister,
Tory
     1809

 1812

Earl of Liverpool
Prime Minister,
Tory
     1812

 1814

  Louis XVIII
(king)
Bourbons
(restored)
Louis XVIII
   1814

 1815

  Napoleon I
(2nd time)
   1815

 1820

George IV      1820

 1824

  Charles X    1824

 1827

George Canning
Prime Minister,
coalition
     1827

 1828

Duke of Wellington
Prime Minister,
Tory
     1828

 1830

Earl Grey
Prime Minister,
Tory
Orleans
Louis Philippe
   1830

 1834

Viscount Melbourne
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1834

 1835

Viscount Melbourne
Prime Minister,
Whig
     1835

 1837

Victoria      1837

 1841

Sir Robert Peel
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1841

 1846

Lord Russell
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1846

 1848

  Second Republic
(presidents)
Louis Eugéne Cavaignac
Louis Napoleon
(later Napoleon III)
   1848

 1852

Earl of Derby
Prime Minister,
Conservative
Second Empire
(emperors)
(Louis) Napoleon III
   1852

 1855

Viscount Palmerston
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1855

 1858

Earl of Derby
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1858

 1859

Viscount Palmerston
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1859

 1865

Lord Russell
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1865

 1866

Earl of Derby
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1866

 1868

Benjamin Disraeli
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1868

 1870

  Third Republic (presidents)
Louis Jules Trochu (provisional)
   1870

 1871

  Adolphe Thiers    1871

 1873

  Patrice de MacMahon    1873

 1874

Benjamin Disraeli
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1874

 1879

  Jules Grévy    1879

 1880

W E Gladstone
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1880

 1885

Marquess of Salisbury
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1885

 1886

W E Gladstone
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1886

 1887

  Sadi Carnot    1887

 1892

W E Gladstone
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1892

 1894

Earl of Rosebery
Prime Minister,
Liberal
Jean Casimir-Périer    1894

 1895

Marquess of Salisbury
Prime Minister,
Conservative
Félix Faure    1895

 1899

  Emile Loubet    1899

 1901

House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Edward VII
     1901

 1902

Arthur James Balfour
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1902

 1905

Sir H Campbell-Bannerman
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1905

 1906

  Armand Fallières    1906

 1908

H H Asquith
Prime Minister,
Liberal
     1908

 1910

House of Windsor
George V
     1910

 1913

  Raymond Poincaré    1913

 1915

H H Asquith
Prime Minister,
coalition
     1915

 1916

David Lloyd George
Prime Minister,
coalition
     1916

 1920

  Paul Deschanel
Alexandre Millerand
   1920

 1922

Andrew Bonar Law
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1922

 1923

Stanley Baldwin
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1923

 1924

Ramsay MacDonald
Prime Minister,
Labour
Gaston Doumergue    1924

 1929

Ramsey MacDonald
Prime Minister,
Labour
     1929

 1931

Ramsey MacDonald
Prime Minister,
national coalition
Paul Doumer    1931

 1932

  Albert Lebrun    1932

 1935

Stanley Baldwin
Prime Minister,
national coalition
     1935

 1936

Edward VIII      1936

 1937

Neville Chamberlain
Prime Minister,
national coalition
     1937

 1940

Sir Winston Churchill
Prime Minister,
coalition
Vichy Government
(Chief of State)
Henri Philippe Petain
   1940

 1944

  Provisional Government
(presidents)
Charles de Gaulle
   1944

 1945

Clement Attlee
Prime Minister,
Labour
     1945

 1946

  Félix Gouin
Georges Bidault
Leon Blum
   1946

 1947

  Fourth Republic
(presidents)
Vincent Auriol
   1947

 1951

Sir Winston Churchill
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1951

 1952

Elizabeth II      1952

 1954

  René Coty    1954

 1955

Sir Anthony Eden
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1955

 1957

Harold Macmillan
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1957

 1959

  Fifth Republic
(presidents)
Charles de Gaulle
   1959

 1963

Sir Alec Douglas-Home
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1963

 1964

Harold Wilson
Prime Minister,
Labour
     1964

 1969

  Georges Pompidou    1969

 1970

Edward Heath
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1970

 1974

Harold Wilson
Prime Minister,
Labour
Valery Giscard d'Estaing    1974

 1976

James Callaghan
Prime Minister,
Labour
     1976

 1979

Margaret Thatcher
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1979

 1981

  Francois Mitterand    1981

 1990

John Major
Prime Minister,
Conservative
     1990

 1995

  Jacques Chirac    1995

 1997

Tony Blair
Prime Minister,
Labour
     1997

 

       


 

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1. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS | BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
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Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit

Wherever possible there must be independent confirmation of the facts.

Encourage substantive debate on the evidence by knowledgeable proponents of all points of view.

Arguments from authority carry little weight (in science there are no "authorities").

Spin more than one hypothesis - don't simply run with the first idea that caught your fancy.

Try not to get overly attached to a hypothesis just because it's yours.

Quantify, wherever possible.

If there is a chain of argument every link in the chain must work.

Occam's razor - if there are two hypothesis that explain the data equally well choose the simpler.

Ask whether the hypothesis can, at least in principle, be falsified (shown to be false by some unambiguous test). In other words, it is testable? Can others duplicate the experiment and get the same result?

Additional issues are:

Conduct control experiments - especially "double blind" experiments where the person taking measurements is not aware of the test and control subjects.

Check for confounding factors - separate the variables.

Common fallacies of logic and rhetoric

Ad hominem - attacking the arguer and not the argument.

Argument from "authority".

Argument from adverse consequences (putting pressure on the decision maker by pointing out dire consequences of an "unfavorable" decision).

Appeal to ignorance (absence of evidence is not evidence of absence).

Special pleading (typically referring to god's will).

Begging the question (assuming an answer in the way the question is phrased).

Observational selection (counting the hits and forgetting the misses).

Statistics of small numbers (such as drawing conclusions from inadequate sample sizes).

Misunderstanding the nature of statistics (President Eisenhower expressing astonishment and alarm on discovering that fully half of all Americans have below average intelligence!)

Inconsistency (e.g. military expenditures based on worst case scenarios but scientific projections on environmental dangers thriftily ignored because they are not "proved").

Non sequitur - "it does not follow" - the logic falls down.

Post hoc, ergo propter hoc - "it happened after so it was caused by" - confusion of cause and effect.

Meaningless question ("what happens when an irresistible force meets an immovable object?).

Excluded middle - considering only the two extremes in a range of possibilities (making the "other side" look worse than it really is).

Short-term v. long-term - a subset of excluded middle ("why pursue fundamental science when we have so huge a budget deficit?").

Slippery slope - a subset of excluded middle - unwarranted extrapolation of the effects (give an inch and they will take a mile).

Confusion of correlation and causation.

Caricaturing (or stereotyping) a position to make it easier to attack.

Suppressed evidence or half-truths.

Weasel words - for example, use of euphemisms for war such as "police action" to get around limitations on Presidential powers. "An important art of politicians is to find new names for institutions which under old names have become odious to the public"

(excerpted from The Planetary Society Australian Volunteer Coordinators Prepared by Michael Paine )

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE (12th Century) | BOTTOM (late 20th century)

 

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