A CHRONOLOGY OF THE COMMON ERA
at thinkworks.com
Compiled from sources on the internet and edited by Dimitris Sivyllis

This site is dedicated to our children. These 2000 years would not have been possible without them.

  The mission of this website is to provide a comprehensive and accurate way to research and cross-reference information about the events, people and epochs which have shaped the Common Era.

History is presented in a linear, timeline, format to emphasize the causality and interdependability of historical events and figures.

The information in this website is shown in columns. You can select a variety of combination of columns to view depending on your research needs or screen size.

Please wait for each page to load, then scroll down to find a Year, and scroll left and right to see all columns of info.

To find a specific event or person use the "Find" function of your browser: type in a particular year, event, or name.

All possible care has been taken to ensure accuracy and objectivity
This Chronology is continuously updated and improved.
Maintained in a Filemaker Pro (R) database, created by M-C/Works Inc for thinkworks.com.
Please direct any comments, corrections, additions, or suggestions to the Webmaster

In the works:
A Chronology page for Before Common Era
A Reference for Historical events and figures in the Movies
A Reference for Historical events and figures depicted in Art

Please wait for the page to load (more than 1.5 MBs) and select a combination of info columns to view from the links below.
1. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS | BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
2. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
3. ROME: POPES & EMPERORS
4. CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
5. BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
6. BRITAIN
7. FRANCE
8. MILESTONES & EVENTS

See a graphic TIMELINE OF THE COMMON ERA
Read Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit!

INFORMATION IN THIS SITE UPDATED: 01:19 EST (6:19 GMT) 1/26/04

    

JUMP TO MIDDLE (12th Century) | BOTTOM (late 20th century)

YEAR C.E.
PATRIARCHS
in
CONSTANTINOPLE

EMPERORS
in
CONSTANTINOPLE

 

 37

St. Andrew the Apostle    37

 38

Stachys the Apostle    38

 54

Onesimus    54

 69

Polycarpus I    69

 89

Plutarch    89

 105

Sedecion    105

 114

Diogenes    114

 129

Eleutherius    129

 136

Felix    136

 141

Polycarpus II    141

 144

Athendodorus    144

 148

Euzois    148

 154

Laurence    154

 166

Alypius    166

 169

Pertinax    169

 187

Olympians    187

 198

Mark I    198

 211

Philadelphus    211

 217

Ciriacus I    217

 230

Castinus    230

 237

Eugenius I    237

 242

Titus    242

 272

Dometius    272

 284

Rufinus I    284

 293

Probus    293

 306

Metrophanes    306

 314

Alexander    314

 324

  Constantine I   324

 337

Paul I Constantine II  337

 339

Eusebius    339

 342

  Macedonius I  342

 346

Paul I    346

 360

Eudoxius of Antioch    360

 370

Demophilus    370

 378

  Theodosius I
The Great
 378

 379

[Evagrius]    379

 380

[Maximus]    380

 381

Nectarius    381

 395

  Arcadius  395

 398

John I    398

 404

Arsacius    404

 406

Atticus    406

 408

  Theodosius II  408

 426

Sisinius I    426

 428

Nestorius    428

 431

Maximianus    431

 434

Proclus    434

 446

Flavian    446

 449

Anatolius    449

 450

  Marcian (m. Pulcheria, gnddghtr Theod I)  450

 457

  Dynasty of Leo   457

 458

Gennadius I    458

 471

Acacius    471

 474

  Leo II  474

 488

Phrabitas    488

 489

Euphemius    489

 491

  Anastasius  491

 495

Macedonus II    495

 511

Timothy    511

 518

John II Justin  518

 520

Epiphanius    520

 527

  Justinian I  527

 535

Anthimus I    535

 536

Menas    536

 552

Eutychius    552

 565

John III Justin II  565

 578

  Tiberius II (I) Constantine  578

 582

John IVBR>Nesteutes, the Faster Maurice  582

 596

Cyriacus    596

 602

  Phocas  602

 607

Thomas I    607

 610

Sergius I Heraclius  610

 638

Pyrrhus    638

 641

Paul II Heraclonas  641

 654

Peter    654

 667

Thomas II    667

 668

  Constantine IV  668

 669

John V    669

 675

Constantine I    675

 677

Theodore I    677

 679

George I    679

 685

  Justinian II (banished)   685

 693

Callinicus I    693

 695

  Leontius  695

 698

  Tiberius III(II)  698

 705

Cyrus Justinian II (restored)  705

 711

  Bardanes  711

 712

John VI    712

 713

  Anastasius II  713

 715

Germanus I    715

 716

  Theodosius III  716

 717

  Leo III  717

 730

Anastasius    730

 741

  Constantine V Copronymus   741

 754

Constantine II    754

 766

Nicetas I    766

 775

  Leo IV  775

 780

Paul IV, Constantine VI  780

 784

Tarasius    784

 797

  Irene  797

 802

  Nicephorus I  802

 806

Nicephorus I    806

 811

  Strauracius  811

 813

  Leo V  813

 815

Theodotus I,    815

 820

  Phrygian Dynasty   820

 821

Anthony I    821

 829

  Theophilus  829

 836

John VII    836

 842

  Michael III  842

 843

Methodius I    843

 847

Ignatius    847

 858

Photius    858

 867

  Basil I   867

 886

Stephanus I    886

 887

  Leo VI  887

 893

Anthony II    893

 901

Nicholas I    901

 907

Euthymius I    907

 912

  Alexander   912

 913

  Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus   913

 925

Stephanus II    925

 927

Tryphon    927

 933

Theophylactus    933

 956

Polyeuctus    956

 959

  Romanus II  959

 963

  Nicephorus II Phocas  963

 970

Basil I    970

 973

Anthony III    973

 976

  Basil II   976

 980

Nicholas II    980

 999

Sergius II    999

 1019

Eustathius    1019

 1025

Alexius I Constantine VIII (IX) alone   1025

 1028

  Romanus III Argyrus   1028

 1034

  Michael IV the Paphlagonian   1034

 1041

  Michael V Calaphates   1041

 1042

  Zoe and Theodora  1042

 1043

Michael I    1043

 1055

  Theodora alone  1055

 1056

  Michael VI Stratioticus   1056

 1057

  Isaac I Comnenos   1057

 1059

Constantine III Constantine X (1X) Ducas   1059

 1064

John VIII    1064

 1068

  Romanus IV Diogenes   1068

 1071

  Michael VII Ducas   1071

 1075

Cosmas I    1075

 1078

  Nicephorus III Botaniates   1078

 1080

  Nicephorus Melissenus  1080

 1081

EustathiusGaridas Alexius I Comnenus   1081

 1084

Nicholas III    1084

 1111

John IX    1111

 1118

  John II Comenus  1118

 1134

Stypiotes    1134

 1143

Michael II Curcuas Manuel I  1143

 1146

Cosmas II Atticus    1146

 1147

Nicholas IV Muzalon    1147

 1151

Theodotus II    1151

 1153

[Neophytus I]    1153

 1154

Constantine IV Chiliarenus    1154

 1156

Lucas Chrysoberges    1156

 1170

Michael III of Anchialus    1170

 1177

Chariton Eugeniotes    1177

 1179

Theodosius I Boradiotes    1179

 1180

  Alexius II  1180

 1183

Basil II Camaterus Andronicus I  1183

 1185

  Isaac II   1185

 1186

Nicetas II Muntanes    1186

 1189

Dositheus of Jerusalem    1189

 1191

Dositheus of Jerusalem    1191

 1195

  Alexius III  1195

 1198

John X Camaterus    1198

 1203

  Isaac II (restored) with Alexius IV   1203

 1204

  Alexius V Ducas Murtzuphlus   1204

 1207

Michael IV Autorianus    1207

 1213

Theodore II Irenicus    1213

 1215

Maximus II    1215

 1222

Germanus II John III Ducas Vatatzes   1222

 1240

Methodius II    1240

 1244

Manuel II    1244

 1254

Arsenius Autorianus Theodore II Lascaris   1254

 1258

  John IV Lascaris   1258

 1259

Nicephorus II Michael VIII Paleologus   1259

 1265

Germanus III    1265

 1266

Joseph I Galesiotes    1266

 1275

John XI Beccus    1275

 1282

Joseph I Galesiotes Andronicus II  1282

 1283

Gregory II Cyprius    1283

 1289

Athanasius I    1289

 1294

John XII Cosmas    1294

 1303

Athanasius I    1303

 1310

Nephon I    1310

 1315

John XIII Glycys    1315

 1320

Gerasimus I    1320

 1323

Isaiah, Jesaias    1323

 1328

  Andronicus III  1328

 1334

John XIV Calecas    1334

 1341

  John V   1341

 1347

Isidore I Bucharis John VI Cantancuzenus   1347

 1350

Callistus I    1350

 1353

Philotheus Coccinus    1353

 1355

Callistus I    1355

 1364

Philotheus Coccinus    1364

 1376

Macarius Andronicus IV  1376

 1379

Nilus Cerameus John V (restored)   1379

 1389

Anthony IV    1389

 1390

Macarius John VII  1390

 1391

Anthony IV Manuel II  1391

 1397

Callistus II Xanthopulus    1397

 1416

Joseph II    1416

 1425

  John VIII  1425

 1440

Metrophanes II    1440

 1443

Gregory III Mammas    1443

 1449

  Constantine XI (XIII) Paleologos  1449

 1450

Athanasius II    1450

 1453

Gennadius II Scholarius Last Emperor of The Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium, Constantine XI (XIII) Paleologos is killed in the final battle defending Constantinople  1453

 1456

Isidore II Xanthopulus    1456

 1463

Syropulus    1463

 1464

Joseph, Ioasaph    1464

 1466

Marcus II Xylokaraves    1466

 1471

Symeon I of Trebizond    1471

 1475

Raphael I    1475

 1476

Maximus III    1476

 1481

Symeon I of Trebizond    1481

 1482

Symeon I of Trebizond    1482

 1486

Nephon II    1486

 1489

Dionysius I    1489

 1491

Maximus IV    1491

 1497

Nephon II    1497

 1498

Joachim I    1498

 1502

Nephon II    1502

 1504

Joachim I    1504

 1513

Theoleptus I    1513

 1522

Jeremias I    1522

 1546

Joannicus I    1546

 1555

Joseph, Joasaph II    1555

 1565

Metrophanes III    1565

 1572

Jeremias II Tranos    1572

 1579

Metrophanes III    1579

 1580

Jeremias II Tranos    1580

 1584

Pachomius II    1584

 1585

Theoleptus II    1585

 1587

Jeremias II Tranos    1587

 1596

Matthew II    1596

 1597

Theophanes I Karykes    1597

 1598

Matthew II    1598

 1602

Neophytus II    1602

 1603

Matthew II    1603

 1607

Neophytus II    1607

 1612

Cyril I Lucaris    1612

 1620

Cyril I Lucaris    1620

 1623

Cyril I Lucaris    1623

 1633

Cyril I Lucaris    1633

 1634

Cyril I Lucaris    1634

 1636

Neophytus III    1636

 1637

Cyril I Lucaris    1637

 1639

Parthenius I    1639

 1644

Parthenius II    1644

 1646

Joannicius II    1646

 1648

Parthenius II    1648

 1651

Joannicius II    1651

 1652

Cyril III    1652

 1653

Joannicius II    1653

 1654

Cyril III    1654

 1655

Joannicius II    1655

 1656

Parthenius III    1656

 1657

Gabriel II    1657

 1662

Dionysius III    1662

 1665

Parthenius IV    1665

 1667

Clement    1667

 1668

Methodius III    1668

 1671

Parthenius IV    1671

 1673

Gerasimus II    1673

 1675

Parthenius IV    1675

 1676

Dionysus IV Muselimes    1676

 1679

Athanasius IV    1679

 1682

Dionysus IV Muselimes    1682

 1684

Parthenius IV    1684

 1685

James    1685

 1686

Dionysus IV Muselimes    1686

 1687

James    1687

 1688

Callinicus II    1688

 1689

Callinicus II    1689

 1693

Dionysus IV Muselimes    1693

 1694

Callinicus II    1694

 1702

Gabriel III    1702

 1707

Neophytus V    1707

 1709

Athanasius V    1709

 1711

Cyril IV    1711

 1713

Cyprianus I    1713

 1714

Cosmas III    1714

 1716

Jeremias III    1716

 1726

Paisius II    1726

 1732

Jeremias III    1732

 1733

Serapheim I    1733

 1734

Neophytus VI    1734

 1740

Paisius II    1740

 1743

Neophytus VI    1743

 1744

Paisius II    1744

 1748

Cyril V    1748

 1752

Cyril V    1752

 1757

Callinicus III    1757

 1761

Joannicius III    1761

 1763

Samuel I Chatzeres    1763

 1768

Meletius II    1768

 1769

Theodosius II    1769

 1773

Samuel I Chatzeres    1773

 1774

Sophoronius II    1774

 1780

Gabriel IV    1780

 1785

Procopius I    1785

 1789

Neophytus VII    1789

 1794

Gerasimus III    1794

 1797

Gregory V    1797

 1798

Neophytus VII    1798

 1801

Callinicus IV    1801

 1806

Gregory V    1806

 1808

Callinicus IV    1808

 1809

Jeremias IV    1809

 1813

Cyril VI    1813

 1818

Gregory V    1818

 1821

Eugenius II    1821

 1822

Anthimus III    1822

 1824

Chrysanthos I    1824

 1826

Agathangelos I    1826

 1830

Constantios I    1830

 1834

Constantios II    1834

 1835

Gregory VI    1835

 1840

Anthimus IV    1840

 1841

Anthimus V    1841

 1842

Germanus IV    1842

 1845

Meletius III    1845

 1848

Anthimus IV    1848

 1852

Germanus IV    1852

 1853

Anthimus VI    1853

 1855

Cyril VII    1855

 1860

Joachim II    1860

 1863

Sophronios III    1863

 1871

Anthimus VI    1871

 1873

Joachim II    1873

 1878

Joachim III    1878

 1884

Joachim IV    1884

 1887

Dionysios V    1887

 1891

Neophytos VIII    1891

 1895

Anthimus VII    1895

 1897

Constantine V    1897

 1901

Joachim III    1901

 1913

Germanus V    1913

 1918

[Vacant,]    1918

 1921

Meletius IV Metaxakis    1921

 1923

Gregory VII    1923

 1924

Constantine VI    1924

 1925

Basil III    1925

 1929

Photius II    1929

 1936

Benjamin I    1936

 1946

Maximus V    1946

 1948

Athenagoras    1948

 1972

Demetrius    1972

 1991

Bartholomew    1991

 

     


 

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE (12th Century)

 

 

Please Select a view:

1. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS | BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
2. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
3. ROME: POPES & EMPERORS
4. CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
5. BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
6. BRITAIN
7. FRANCE
8. MILESTONES & EVENTS

 

© 2002 THINKWORKS.COM
This website is made on a Mac and is powered by a Filemaker Pro (R) database

 

Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit

Wherever possible there must be independent confirmation of the facts.

Encourage substantive debate on the evidence by knowledgeable proponents of all points of view.

Arguments from authority carry little weight (in science there are no "authorities").

Spin more than one hypothesis - don't simply run with the first idea that caught your fancy.

Try not to get overly attached to a hypothesis just because it's yours.

Quantify, wherever possible.

If there is a chain of argument every link in the chain must work.

Occam's razor - if there are two hypothesis that explain the data equally well choose the simpler.

Ask whether the hypothesis can, at least in principle, be falsified (shown to be false by some unambiguous test). In other words, it is testable? Can others duplicate the experiment and get the same result?

Additional issues are:

Conduct control experiments - especially "double blind" experiments where the person taking measurements is not aware of the test and control subjects.

Check for confounding factors - separate the variables.

Common fallacies of logic and rhetoric

Ad hominem - attacking the arguer and not the argument.

Argument from "authority".

Argument from adverse consequences (putting pressure on the decision maker by pointing out dire consequences of an "unfavorable" decision).

Appeal to ignorance (absence of evidence is not evidence of absence).

Special pleading (typically referring to god's will).

Begging the question (assuming an answer in the way the question is phrased).

Observational selection (counting the hits and forgetting the misses).

Statistics of small numbers (such as drawing conclusions from inadequate sample sizes).

Misunderstanding the nature of statistics (President Eisenhower expressing astonishment and alarm on discovering that fully half of all Americans have below average intelligence!)

Inconsistency (e.g. military expenditures based on worst case scenarios but scientific projections on environmental dangers thriftily ignored because they are not "proved").

Non sequitur - "it does not follow" - the logic falls down.

Post hoc, ergo propter hoc - "it happened after so it was caused by" - confusion of cause and effect.

Meaningless question ("what happens when an irresistible force meets an immovable object?).

Excluded middle - considering only the two extremes in a range of possibilities (making the "other side" look worse than it really is).

Short-term v. long-term - a subset of excluded middle ("why pursue fundamental science when we have so huge a budget deficit?").

Slippery slope - a subset of excluded middle - unwarranted extrapolation of the effects (give an inch and they will take a mile).

Confusion of correlation and causation.

Caricaturing (or stereotyping) a position to make it easier to attack.

Suppressed evidence or half-truths.

Weasel words - for example, use of euphemisms for war such as "police action" to get around limitations on Presidential powers. "An important art of politicians is to find new names for institutions which under old names have become odious to the public"

(excerpted from The Planetary Society Australian Volunteer Coordinators Prepared by Michael Paine )

JUMP TO TOP | MIDDLE (12th Century) | BOTTOM (late 20th century)

 

Please Select a view:

1. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS | BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
2. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
3. ROME: POPES & EMPERORS
4. CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
5. BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
6. BRITAIN
7. FRANCE
8. MILESTONES & EVENTS