A CHRONOLOGY OF THE COMMON ERA
at thinkworks.com
Compiled from sources on the internet and edited by Dimitris Sivyllis

This site is dedicated to our children. These 2000 years would not have been possible without them.

  The mission of this website is to provide a comprehensive and accurate way to research and cross-reference information about the events, people and epochs which have shaped the Common Era.

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In the works:
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A Reference for Historical events and figures depicted in Art

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1. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS | BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
2. MILESTONES & EVENTS | ROME: POPES & EMPERORS | CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
3. ROME: POPES & EMPERORS
4. CONSTANTINOPLE: PATRIARCHS & EMPERORS
5. BRITAIN | FRANCE | WORLD
6. BRITAIN
7. FRANCE
8. MILESTONES & EVENTS

See a graphic TIMELINE OF THE COMMON ERA
Read Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit!

INFORMATION IN THIS SITE UPDATED: 01:19 EST (6:19 GMT) 1/26/04

    

JUMP TO MIDDLE (12th Century) | BOTTOM (late 20th century)

YEAR C.E.
POPES
in
ROME

EMPERORS
in
ROME

 

 1

Anno Domini (AD)
years begin to be counted
   1

 14

  Tiberius  14

 37

  Gaius (Caligula)  37

 41

  Claudius  41

 42

1 St. Peter    42

 54

  Nero  54

 67

2 St. Linus    67

 69

  After Nero's suicide, Galba, Otho and Vitellius are emperors of Rome in quick succession  69

 70

  Vespasian  70

 76

3 St. Anacletus    76

 81

  Titus

Domitian
 81

 88

4 St. Clement I    88

 89

  L. Antonius Saturninus  89

 96

  Nerva  96

 97

5 St. Evaristus    97

 98

  Trajan  98

 105

6 St. Alexander I    105

 115

7 St. Sixtus I    115

 117

  Hadrian  117

 125

8 St. Telesphorus    125

 136

9 St. Hyginus    136

 138

  Antoninus Pius  138

 140

10 St. Pius I    140

 155

11 St. Anicetus    155

 161

  Marcus Aurelius   161

 168

12 St. Soterus    168

 175

13 St. Eleutherius Avidius Cassius  175

 180

  Commodus  180

 189

14 St. Victor I    189

 192

  Pertinax  192

 193

  Didius Julianus  193

 199

5 St. Zephirinus    199

 211

  Antoninus (Caracalla)  211

 217

16 St. Calixtus I Macrinus  217

 218

  Diadumenianus  218

 221

[Hippolytus]    221

 222

17 St. Urban I Severus Alexander   222

 225

  L. Seius Sallustius  225

 230

18 St. Pontianus    230

 235

19 St. Anterius Maximinus Thrax  235

 236

20 St. Fabianus    236

 238

  Gordian I   238

 240

  Sabinianus  240

 244

  Philip the Arab  244

 247

  Philip Iunior  247

 248

  Pacatianus  248

 249

  Decius   249

 251

21 St. Cornelius    251

 252

[Novatianus]    252

 253

22 St. Lucius I    253

 254

23 St. Stephen I    254

 257

24 St. Sixtus II    257

 259

25 St. Dionysius    259

 268

  Claudius II Gothicus   268

 269

26 St. Felix I Laelianus  269

 270

  Quintillus  270

 271

  Domitianus  271

 272

  Vaballathus  272

 273

  Firmus  273

 274

  Faustinus  274

 275

27 St. Eutychianus Tacitus  275

 276

  Florianus   276

 280

  Bonosus  280

 281

  Saturninus  281

 282

  Carus  282

 283

28 St. Caius Numerianus  283

 284

  Diocletian  284

 285

  Maximianus Herculius  285

 293

  Allectus  293

 296

29 St. Marcellinus    296

 297

  L. Domitius Domitianus   297

 304

Vacant,    304

 305

  Maximinus Daia  305

 306

  Maxentius

Constantine I 
 306

 308

30 St. Marcellus I L. Domitius Alexander  308

 309

31 St. Eusebius    309

 311

32 St. Melchiades    311

 314

33 St. Sylvester I Valens  314

 336

34 St. Marcus I    336

 337

35 St. Julius I    337

 350

  Magnentius  350

 352

36 Liberius    352

 355

  Silvanus  355

 356

[Felix II]    356

 361

  Julian  361

 363

  Jovian  363

 364

  Valentinian I   364

 365

  Procopius  365

 366

37 St. Damasus I Marcellus  366

 367

  Gratian  367

 372

  Firmus  372

 375

  Valentinian II  375

 383

[Ursinus] Magnus Maximus  383

 384

38 St. Siricius Flavius Victor  384

 392

  Eugenius  392

 393

  Honorius  393

 399

9 St. Anastasius I    399

 401

40 St. Innocent I    401

 406

  Marcus  406

 407

  Gratian  407

 409

  Constans II  409

 411

  Jovinus  411

 412

  Sebastianus  412

 414

  Priscus Attalus  414

 417

41 St. Zosimus    417

 418

42 St. Boniface I    418

 421

[Eulatius] Constantius III  421

 422

43 St. Celestine I    422

 423

  Johannes  423

 425

  Valentinian III  425

 432

44St. Sixtus III    432

 440

45 St. Leo I    440

 455

  Petronius Maximus  455

 457

  Majorian  457

 461

46 St. Hilarus (Hilary) Libius Severus  461

 467

  Anthemius  467

 468

47 St. Simplicius Arvandus  468

 470

  Romanus  470

 472

  Olybrius  472

 473

  Glycerius  473

 474

  Julius Nepos  474

 475

  Romulus Augustulus  475

 483

48 St. Felix III    483

 492

49 St. Gelasius I    492

 496

50 St. Anastasius II    496

 498

51 St. Symmachus
[Laurentius]
   498

 514

52 St. Hormisdas    514

 523

53 St. John I    523

 526

54 St. Felix IV    526

 530

55 Boniface II    530

 533

56 John II    533

 535

57 St. Agapetus I    535

 536

58 St. Sylverius    536

 537

59 Vigilius    537

 556

60 Pelagius I    556

 561

61 John III    561

 575

62 Benedict I    575

 579

63 Pelagius II    579

 590

64 St. Gregory I    590

 604

65 Sabinianus    604

 607

66 Boniface III    607

 608

67 St. Boniface IV    608

 615

68 St. Deusdedit    615

 619

69 Boniface V    619

 625

70 Honorius I    625

 632

Muhammed flees Mecca, beginning the Muslim era.    632

 638

Vacant    638

 640

71 Severinus    640

 642

73 Theodore I    642

 649

74 St. Martin I
Arrested and died in exile in Crimea
   649

 654

75 St. Eugenius I    654

 657

76 St. Vitalianus    657

 672

77 Adeodatus    672

 676

78 Domnus (I)    676

 678

79 St. Agathon    678

 682

80 St. Leo II    682

 684

81 St. Benedict II    684

 685

82 John V    685

 686

83 Conon    686

 687

84 St. Sergius I
Ordered arrested but Italian garrison refuses

[Paschal]

[Theodorus]
   687

 701

85 John VI    701

 705

86 John VII    705

 708

87 Sisinnius

88 Constantine I
Last Pope to visit Constantinople
   708

 715

89 St. Gregory II    715

 731

90 St. Gregory III

Appeals to Franks for help against Lombards
   731

 741

91 St. Zachary    741

 752

92 Stephen II

93 Stephen III
   752

 757

94 St. Paul I    757

 767

[Constantine II]

[Philip]
   767

 768

95 Stephen IV    768

 772

96 Adrian I    772

 795

97 St. Leo III    795

 816

98 Stephen V    816

 817

99 St. Paschal I    817

 824

100 Eugenius II    824

 827

101 Valentinus

102 Gregory IV
   827

 844

103 Sergius II    844

 847

104 St. Leo IV    847

 855

105 Benedict III

[Anastasius]
   855

 858

106 St. Nicholas I    858

 867

107 Adrian II    867

 872

108 John VIII    872

 882

109 Martin II    882

 884

110 St. Adrian III    884

 885

111 Stephen VI    885

 891

112 Fromosus    891

 896

113 Boniface VI    896

 897

115 Romanus
116 Theodore II
   897

 898

117 John IX    898

 900

118 Benedict IV    900

 903

19 Leo V
120 Christopher
   903

 904

212 Sergius III    904

 911

122 Anastasius III    911

 913

123 Lando    913

 914

134 John X    914

 928

125 Leo VI
126 Stephen VIII
   928

 931

127 John XI    931

 936

128 Leo VII    936

 939

129 Stephen IX    939

 942

130 Martin III    942

 946

131 Agapetus II    946

 955

132 John XII    955

 963

{Leo VIII}    963

 964

133 Benedict V    964

 965

134 John XIII    965

 973

135 Benedict VI    973

 974

[Boniface VII]
{Domnus II}
   974

 983

137 John XIV    983

 985

138 John XV    985

 996

139 GregoryV
[John XVI]
   996

 999

140 Sylvester II    999

 1003

141 John XVII    1003

 1004

142 John XVIII    1004

 1009

143 Sergius IV    1009

 1012

144 Benedict VIII    1012

 1024

145 John XIX    1024

 1032

146 Benedict IX    1032

 1044

[Sylvester III]    1044

 1045

147 Gregory VI
146 Benedict IX
   1045

 1046

148 Clement II    1046

 1047

146 Benedict IX    1047

 1048

149 Damasus II    1048

 1049

150 St. Leo IX    1049

 1055

151 Victor II    1055

 1057

152 Stephen X    1057

 1058

153 Benedict X    1058

 1059

154 Nicholas II    1059

 1061

155 Alexander II    1061

 1073

156 St. Gregory VII    1073

 1080

[Clement (III)]    1080

 1085

Vacant,    1085

 1086

157 Victor III    1086

 1088

158 Urban II    1088

 1099

159 Paschal II    1099

 1102

[Albert]    1102

 1105

[Sylvester]    1105

 1118

160 Gelasius II    1118

 1119

161 Calixtus II    1119

 1124

162 Honorius II    1124

 1130

163 Innocent II    1130

 1138

[Victor IV]    1138

 1143

164 Celestine II    1143

 1144

165 Lucius II    1144

 1145

166 Eugenius III    1145

 1153

167 Anastasius IV    1153

 1154

168 Adrian IV    1154

 1159

169 Alexander III    1159

 1164

[Paschal III]    1164

 1168

[Calixtus (III)]    1168

 1181

170 Lucius III    1181

 1185

171 Urban III    1185

 1187

172 Gregory VIII    1187

 1191

174 Celestine III    1191

 1198

175 Innocent III    1198

 1216

176 Honorius III    1216

 1227

177 Gregory IX    1227

 1241

178 Celestine IV    1241

 1243

179 Innocent IV    1243

 1254

180 Alexander IV    1254

 1261

181 Urban IV    1261

 1265

182 Clement IV    1265

 1269

Vacant,    1269

 1271

183 Gregory X    1271

 1276

184 Innocent V    1276

 1277

187 Nicholas III    1277

 1281

188 Martin IV    1281

 1285

189 Honorius IV    1285

 1288

190 Nicholas IV    1288

 1292

Vacant,    1292

 1294

191 St. Celestine V    1294

 1303

193 Benedict XI    1303

 1305

A 194 Clement V    1305

 1314

Vacant,    1314

 1316

A 195 John XXII    1316

 1334

A 196 Benedict XII    1334

 1342

A 197 Clement VI    1342

 1352

A 198 Innocent VI    1352

 1362

A 199 Urban V    1362

 1370

R 200 Gregory XI
leaves Avignon, 1376; returns to Rome, 1377
   1370

 1378

R 201 Urban VI
resides at Rome, Anti-Pope elected at Avignon; Great Schism
   1378

 1389

R 202 Boniface IX    1389

 1394

A [Benedict (XIII)]
1394-1417 d.1423
   1394

 1404

R 203 Innocent VII    1404

 1406

R 204 Gregory XII
1406-1415 d.1417
   1406

 1409

P Alexander V    1409

 1410

P [John (XXIII)]
1410-1415 d.1419
   1410

 1415

Vacant,    1415

 1417

205 Martin V    1417

 1423

A [Clement (VIII)]
1423-1429
   1423

 1431

(Eugenius) IV    1431

 1447

207 Nicholas V    1447

 1455

208 Calixtus III    1455

 1458

209 Pius II    1458

 1464

210 Paul II    1464

 1471

211 Sixtus IV    1471

 1484

212 Innocent VIII    1484

 1492

213 Alexander VI Borgia            1492

 1503

214 Pius III

215 Julius II
   1503

 1513

216 Leo X Medici    1513

 1522

217 Adrian VI    1522

 1523

218 Clement VII    1523

 1534

219 Paul III    1534

 1550

220 Julius III    1550

 1555

221 Marcellus II    1555

 1559

223 Pius IV    1559

 1566

224 St. Pius V    1566

 1572

225 Gregory XIII    1572

 1585

226 Sixtus V    1585

 1590

227 Urban VII    1590

 1591

229 Innocent IX    1591

 1592

230 Clement VIII    1592

 1605

231 Leo XI    1605

 1621

233 Gregory XV    1621

 1623

234 Urban VIII    1623

 1644

235 Innocent X    1644

 1655

236 Alexander VII    1655

 1667

237 Clement IX    1667

 1670

238 Clement X    1670

 1676

239 Innocent XI    1676

 1689

240 Alexander VIII    1689

 1691

241 Innocent XII    1691

 1700

242 Clement XI    1700

 1721

243 Innocent XIII    1721

 1724

244 Benedict XIII    1724

 1730

245 Clement XII    1730

 1740

246 Benedict XIV    1740

 1758

247 Clement XIII    1758

 1769

248 Clement XIV    1769

 1775

249 Pius VI    1775

 1800

250 Pius VII    1800

 1823

251 Leo XII    1823

 1829

252 Pius VIII    1829

 1831

253 Gregory XVI    1831

 1846

254 Pius IX    1846

 1878

255 Leo XIII    1878

 1903

256 St. Pius X    1903

 1914

257 Benedict XV    1914

 1922

258 Pius XI    1922

 1939

259 Pius XII    1939

 1958

260 John XXIII    1958

 1963

261 Paul VI    1963

 1978

262 John Paul I

263 John Paul II
   1978

 

     


 

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Carl Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit

Wherever possible there must be independent confirmation of the facts.

Encourage substantive debate on the evidence by knowledgeable proponents of all points of view.

Arguments from authority carry little weight (in science there are no "authorities").

Spin more than one hypothesis - don't simply run with the first idea that caught your fancy.

Try not to get overly attached to a hypothesis just because it's yours.

Quantify, wherever possible.

If there is a chain of argument every link in the chain must work.

Occam's razor - if there are two hypothesis that explain the data equally well choose the simpler.

Ask whether the hypothesis can, at least in principle, be falsified (shown to be false by some unambiguous test). In other words, it is testable? Can others duplicate the experiment and get the same result?

Additional issues are:

Conduct control experiments - especially "double blind" experiments where the person taking measurements is not aware of the test and control subjects.

Check for confounding factors - separate the variables.

Common fallacies of logic and rhetoric

Ad hominem - attacking the arguer and not the argument.

Argument from "authority".

Argument from adverse consequences (putting pressure on the decision maker by pointing out dire consequences of an "unfavorable" decision).

Appeal to ignorance (absence of evidence is not evidence of absence).

Special pleading (typically referring to god's will).

Begging the question (assuming an answer in the way the question is phrased).

Observational selection (counting the hits and forgetting the misses).

Statistics of small numbers (such as drawing conclusions from inadequate sample sizes).

Misunderstanding the nature of statistics (President Eisenhower expressing astonishment and alarm on discovering that fully half of all Americans have below average intelligence!)

Inconsistency (e.g. military expenditures based on worst case scenarios but scientific projections on environmental dangers thriftily ignored because they are not "proved").

Non sequitur - "it does not follow" - the logic falls down.

Post hoc, ergo propter hoc - "it happened after so it was caused by" - confusion of cause and effect.

Meaningless question ("what happens when an irresistible force meets an immovable object?).

Excluded middle - considering only the two extremes in a range of possibilities (making the "other side" look worse than it really is).

Short-term v. long-term - a subset of excluded middle ("why pursue fundamental science when we have so huge a budget deficit?").

Slippery slope - a subset of excluded middle - unwarranted extrapolation of the effects (give an inch and they will take a mile).

Confusion of correlation and causation.

Caricaturing (or stereotyping) a position to make it easier to attack.

Suppressed evidence or half-truths.

Weasel words - for example, use of euphemisms for war such as "police action" to get around limitations on Presidential powers. "An important art of politicians is to find new names for institutions which under old names have become odious to the public"

(excerpted from The Planetary Society Australian Volunteer Coordinators Prepared by Michael Paine )

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